【词汇】雅思阅读常用词(033)- Forests

Cambridge 07  Test 3 – Passage 3: Forests

Forests are one of the main elements of our natural heritage. The decline of Europe’s forests over the last decade and a half has led to an increasing awareness and understanding of the serious imbalances which threaten them. European countries are becoming increasingly concerned by major threats to European forests, threats which know no frontiers other than those of geography or climate: air pollution, soil deterioration, the increasing number of forest fires and sometimes even them is management of our woodland and forest heritage. There has been a growing awareness of the need for countries to get together to co-ordinate their policies. In December 1990, Strasbourg hosted the first Ministerial Conference on the protection of Europe’s forests. The conference brought together 31 countries from both Western and Eastern Europe. The topics discussed included the co-ordinated study of the destruction of forests, as well as how to combat forest fires and the extension of European research programs on the forest ecosystem. The preparatory work for the conference had been undertaken at two meetings of experts. Their initial task was to decide which of the many forest problems of concern to Europe involved the largest number of countries and might be the subject of joint action. Those confined to particular geographical areas, such as countries bordering the Mediterranean or the Nordic countries therefore had to be discarded. However, this does not mean that in future they will be ignored.

  • heritage 英 /’herɪtɪdʒ/ 美 /’hɛrɪtɪdʒ/ n. 遗产;传统;继;承物继承权
  • decline 英 /dɪ’klaɪn/ 美 /dɪ’klaɪn/ n. 下降;衰退;斜面 vt. 谢绝;婉拒 vi. 下降;衰落;谢绝
  • increasingly 英 /ɪn’kriːsɪŋlɪ/ 美 /ɪn’krisɪŋli/ adv. 越来越多地;渐增地
  • deterioration 英 /dɪ,tɪərɪə’reɪʃn/ 美 /dɪ,tɪrɪə’reʃən/ n. 恶化;退化;堕落
  • co-ordinate 英 /kəu’ɔ:dənit/ 美 /kəu’ɔ:dənit/ n. 坐标 v. 使……协调 adj. [生物] 同等的;并列的
  • destruction 英 /dɪ’strʌkʃ(ə)n/ 美 /dɪ’strʌkʃən/ n. 破坏,毁灭;摧毁
  • combat 英 /’kɒmbæt; ‘kʌm-/ 美 /’kɑmbæt/ n. 战斗;争论 adj. 战斗的;为…斗争的 vi. 战斗;搏斗 vt. 反对;与…战斗
  • extension 英 /ɪk’stenʃ(ə)n; ek-/ 美 /ɪk’stɛnʃən/ n. 延长;延期;扩大;伸展;电话分机
  • initial 英 /ɪ’nɪʃəl/ 美 /ɪ’nɪʃəl/ n. 词首大写字母 adj. 最初的;字首的 vt. 用姓名的首字母签名
  • discarded 英 美 /dɪs’kɑrd/ v. 丢弃(discard的过去分词) adj. 丢弃的;废弃的

As a whole, European countries see forests as performing a triple function: biological, economic and recreational. The first is to act as a ‘green lung’ for our planet; by means of photosynthesis, forests produce oxygen through the transformation of solar energy, thus fulfilling what for humans is the essential role of an immense, non-polluting power plant. At the same time, forests provide raw materials for human activities through their constantly renewed production of wood. Finally, they offer those condemned to spend five days a week in an urban environment an unrivalled area of freedom to unwind and take part in a range of leisure activities, such as hunting, riding and hiking. The economic importance of forests has been understood since the dawn of man – wood was the first fuel. The other aspects have been recognised only for a few centuries but they are becoming more and more important. Hence, there is a real concern throughout Europe about the damage to the forest environment which threatens these three basic roles.

  • recreational 英 /rekrɪ’eɪʃənl/ 美 /,rɛkri’eʃənəl/ adj. 娱乐的,消遣的;休养的
  • fulfilling 英 /fʊl’fɪlɪŋ/ 美 /fʊl’fɪlɪŋ/ adj. 令人满意的;能实现个人抱负的
  • essential 英 /ɪ’senʃ(ə)l/ 美 /ɪ’sɛnʃl/ n. 本质;要素;要点;必需品 adj. 基本的;必要的;本质的;精华的
  • immense 英 /ɪ’mens/ 美 /ɪ’mɛns/ adj. 巨大的,广大的;无边无际的
  • constantly 英 /’kɒnst(ə)ntlɪ/ 美 /’kɑnstəntli/ adv. 不断地;时常地
  • condemned 英 /kən’demd/ 美 /kən’dɛmd/ adj. 已被定罪的;被责难的
  • unrivalled 英 /ʌn’raɪv(ə)ld/ 美 /ʌn’raivld/ adj. 无与伦比的;无敌的
  • unwind 英 /ʌn’waɪnd/ 美 /,ʌn’waɪnd/  vt. 放松;解开;[计] 展开 vi. 放松;解开;松开

The myth of the ‘natural’ forest has survived, yet there are effectively no remaining ‘primary’ forests in Europe. All European forests are artificial, having been adapted and exploited by man for thousands of years. This means that a forest policy is vital, that it must transcend national frontiers and generations of people, and that it must allow for the inevitable changes that take place in the forests, in needs, and hence in policy. The Strasbourg conference was one of the first events on such a scale to reach this conclusion. A general declaration was made that ‘a central place in any ecologically coherent forest policy must be given to continuity over time and to the possible effects of unforeseen events, to ensure that the full potential of these forests is maintained’.

  • vital 英 /’vaɪt(ə)l/ 美 /’vaɪtl/ adj. 至关重要的;生死攸关的;有活力的
  • transcend 英 /træn’send; trɑːn-/ 美 /træn’sɛnd/ vt. 胜过,超越
  • inevitable 英 /ɪn’evɪtəb(ə)l/ 美 /ɪn’ɛvɪtəbl/ adj. 必然的,不可避免的
  • coherent  英 /kə(ʊ)’hɪər(ə)nt/ 美 /ko’hɪrənt/ adj. 连贯的,一致的;明了的;清晰的;凝聚性的;互相耦合的;粘在一起的

That general declaration was accompanied by six detailed resolutions to assist national policy-making. The first proposes the extension and systematisation of surveillance sites to monitor forest decline. Forest decline is still poorly understood but leads to the loss of a high proportion of a tree’s needles or leaves. The entire continent and the majority of species are now affected: between 30% and 50% of the tree population. The condition appears to result from the cumulative effect of a number of factors, with atmospheric pollutants the principal culpritsCompounds of nitrogen and sulphur dioxide should be particularly closely watched. However, their effects are probably accentuated by climatic factors, such as drought and hard winters, or soil imbalances such as soil acidification, which damages the roots. The second resolution concentrates on the need to preserve the genetic diversity of European forests. The aim is to reverse the decline in the number of tree species or at least to preserve the ‘genetic material’ of all of them. Although forest fires do not affect all of Europe to the same extent, the amount of damage caused the experts to propose as the third resolution that the Strasbourg conference consider the establishment of a European databank on the subject. All information used in the development of national preventative policies would become generally available. The subject of the fourth resolution discussed by the ministers was mountain forests. In Europe, it is undoubtedly the mountain ecosystem which has changed most rapidly and is most at risk. A thinly scattered permanent population and development of leisure activities, particularly skiing, have resulted in significant long-term changes to the local ecosystems. Proposed developments include a preferential research program on mountain forests. The fifth resolution relaunched the European research network on the physiology of trees, called Eurosilva. Eurosilva should support joint European research on tree diseases and their physiological and biochemical aspects. Each country concerned could increase the number of scholarships and other financial support for doctoral theses and research projects in this area. Finally, the conference established the framework for a European research network on forest ecosystems. This would also involve harmonising activities in individual countries as well as identifying a number of priority research topics relating to the protection of forests. The Strasbourg conference’s main concern was to provide for the future. This was the initial motivation, one now shared by all 31 participants representing 31 European countries. Their final text commits them to on-going discussion between government representatives with responsibility for forests.

  • surveillance 英 /sə’veɪl(ə)ns; -‘veɪəns/ 美 /sɝ’veləns/ n. 监督;监视
  • proportion 英 /prə’pɔːʃ(ə)n/ 美 /prə’pɔrʃən/ n. 比例,占比;部分;面积;均衡 vt. 使成比例;使均衡;分摊
  • cumulative 英 /’kjuːmjʊlətɪv/ 美 /’kjumjəletɪv/ adj. 累积的
  • culprit 英 /’kʌlprɪt/ 美 /’kʌlprɪt/ n. 犯人,罪犯;被控犯罪的人
  • compound 英 /’kɒmpaʊnd/ 美 /kɑmˈpaʊnd/ vt. 合成;混合;和解妥协;搀合 vi. 和解;妥协 n. [化学] 化合物;混合物;复合词 adj. 复合的;混合的
  • nitrogen 英 /’naɪtrədʒ(ə)n/ 美 /’naɪtrədʒən/ n. [化学] 氮
  • sulphur 英 /’sʌlfə/ 美 /’sʌlfə/ n. 硫磺;硫磺色 vt. 使硫化;用硫磺处理
  • accentuate英 /ək’sentʃʊeɪt; -tjʊ-/ 美 /ək ‘sɛntʃuet/ vt. 强调;重读
  • acidification 英 /ə,sɪdɪfɪ’keɪʃən/ 美 /ə,sɪdəfɪ’keʃən/ n. [化学] 酸化;成酸性;使……发酸
  • resolution 英 /rezə’luːʃ(ə)n/ 美 /,rɛzə’luʃən/ n. [物] 分辨率;决议;解决;决心
  • concentrate 英 /’kɒns(ə)ntreɪt/ 美 /’kɑnsn’tret/ n. 浓缩,精选;浓缩液 vi. 集中;浓缩;全神贯注;聚集 vt. 集中;浓缩
  • reverse 英 /rɪ’vɜːs/ 美 /rɪ’vɝs/ n. 背面;相反;倒退;失败 adj. 反面的;颠倒的;反身的 vt. 颠倒;倒转 vi. 倒退;逆叫
  • scatter 英 /’skætə/ 美 /’skætɚ/ n. 分散;散播,撒播 vt. 使散射;使散开,使分散 vi. 分散,散开;散射
  • permanent 英 /’pɜːm(ə)nənt/ 美 /’pɝmənənt/ n. 烫发(等于permanent wave) adj. 永久的,永恒的;不变的
  • preferential 英 /,prefə’renʃ(ə)l/ 美 /,prɛfə’rɛnʃl/ adj. 优先的;选择的;特惠的;先取的
  • harmonise 英 /’hɑ:mənaiz/ 美 /’hɑ:mənaiz/ vt. 使和谐 vi. 和谐(等于harmonize)