【词汇】雅思阅读常用词(027)- EDUCATING PSYCHE

Cambridge 07 Test 1 – Passage 3: EDUCATING PSYCHE

Educating Psyche by Bernie Neville is a book which looks at radical new approaches to learning, describing the effects of emotion, imagination and the unconscious on learning. One theory discussed in the book is that proposed by George Lozanov, which focuses on the power of suggestion.

Lozanov’s instructional technique is based on the evidence that the connections made in the brain through unconscious processing (which he calls non-specific mental reactivity) are more durable than those made through conscious processing. Besides the laboratory evidence for this, we know from our experience that we often remember what we have perceived peripherally, long after we have forgotten what we set out to learn. If we think of a book we studied months or years ago, we will find it easier to recall peripheral details – the colour, the binding, the typeface, the table at the library where we sat while studying it – than the content on which we were concentrating. If we think of a lecture we listened to with great concentration, we will recall the lecturer’s appearance and mannerisms, our place in the auditorium, the failure of the air-conditioning, much more easily than the ideas we went to learn. Even if these peripheral details are a bit elusive, they come back readily in hypnosis or when we relive the event imaginatively, as in psychodrama. The details of the content of the lecture, on the other hand, seem to have gone forever.

  • psyche    英[ˈsaɪki]    美[ˈsaɪki] n.    灵魂,心灵; 心智,精神

  • unconscious 英 [ʌn’kɒnʃəs] 美 [ʌn’kɑnʃəs] adj. 无意识的;失去知觉的;不省人事的

  • durable 英 [‘djʊərəb(ə)l] 美 [‘dʊrəbl] n. 耐用品 adj. 耐用的,持久的

  • perceive 英 [pə’siːv] 美 [pɚ’siv] vt. 察觉,感觉;理解;认知 vi. 感到,感知;认识到

  • peripherally 英 [pə’rifərəli] 美 [pə’rɪfərəli] adv. 周边地;外围地;次要地

This phenomenon can be partly attributed to the common counterproductive approach to study (making extreme efforts to memorise, tensing muscles, inducing fatigue), but it also simply reflects the way the brain functions. Lozanov therefore made indirect instruction (suggestion) central to his teaching system. In suggestopedia, as he called his method, consciousness is shifted away from the curriculum to focus on something peripheral. The curriculum then becomes peripheral and is dealt with by the reserve capacity of the brain.

  • phenomenon 英 [fɪ’nɒmɪnən] 美 [fə’nɑmɪnən] n. 现象;奇迹;杰出的人才

  • attribute 英 [ə’trɪbjuːt] 美 [ə’trɪbjut] n. 属性;特质 vt. 归属;把…归于

  • counterproductive 英 [,kaʊntəprə’dʌktɪv] 美 [,kaʊntɚprə’dʌktɪv] adj. 反生产的;使达不到预期目标的

  • fatigue 英 [fə’tiːg] 美 [fə’tig] n. 疲劳,疲乏;杂役

  • reflect 英 [rɪ’flekt] 美 [rɪ’flɛkt] vt. 反映;反射,照出;表达;显示;反省 vi. 反射,映现;深思

  • suggestopedia 暗示法

  • consciousness 英 [‘kɒnʃəsnɪs] 美 [‘kɑnʃəsnəs] n. 意识;知觉;觉悟;感觉

  • capacity 英 [kə’pæsɪtɪ] 美 [kə’pæsəti]n. 能力;容量;资格,地位;生产力

The suggestopedic approach to foreign language learning provides a good illustration. In its most recent variant (1980), it consists of the reading of vocabulary and text while the class is listening to music. The first session is in two parts. In the first part, the music is classical (Mozart, Beethoven, Brahms) and the teacher reads the text slowly and solemnly, with attention to the dynamics of the music. The students follow the text in their books. This is followed by several minutes of silence. In the second part, they listen to baroque music (Bach, Corelli, Handel) while the teacher reads the text in a normal speaking voice. During this time they have their books closed. During the whole of this session, their attention is passive; they listen to the music but make no attempt to learn the material.

Beforehand, the students have been carefully prepared for the language learning experience. Through meeting with the staff and satisfied students they develop the expectation that learning will be easy and pleasant and that they will successfully learn several hundred words of the foreign language during the class. In a preliminary talk, the teacher introduces them to the material to be covered, but does not ‘teach’ it. Likewise, the students are instructed not to try to learn it during this introduction.

Some hours after the two-part session, there is a follow-up class at which the students are stimulated to recall the material presented. Once again the approach is indirect. The students do not focus their attention on trying to remember the vocabulary, but focus on using the language to communicate (e.g. through games or improvised dramatisations). Such methods are not unusual in language teaching. What is distinctive in the suggestopedic method is that they are devoted entirely to assisting recall. The ‘learning’ of the material is assumed to be automatic and effortless, accomplished while listening to music. The teacher’s task is to assist the students to apply what they have learned paraconsciously, and in doing so to make it easily accessible to consciousness. Another difference from conventional teaching is the evidence that students can regularly learn 1000 new words of a foreign language during a suggestopedic session, as well as grammar and idiom.

  • variant 英 [‘veərɪənt] 美 [‘vɛrɪənt] n. 变体;转化

  • solemnly 美 [‘sɑləmli] adv. 庄严地;严肃地

  • Baroque 英 [bə’rɔk] 美 [bə’rɔk] n. 巴洛克风格;巴洛克艺术 adj. 巴洛克式的;结构复杂的,形式怪样的

  • preliminary 英 [prɪ’lɪmɪn(ə)rɪ] 美 [prɪ’lɪmɪnɛri] n. 准备;预赛;初步措施 adj. 初步的;开始的;预备的

  • stimulate 英 [‘stɪmjʊleɪt] 美 [‘stɪmjə’let] vi. 起刺激作用;起促进作用

  • improvise 英 [‘ɪmprəvaɪz] 美 [‘ɪmprəvaɪz] vt. 即兴创作;即兴表演;临时做;临时提供

  • suggestopedic adj. 暗示法教学法的

  • devote 英 [dɪ’vəʊt] 美 [dɪ’vot] vt. 致力于;奉献

  • paraconsciously 超意识地

  • conventional 英 [kən’venʃ(ə)n(ə)l] 美 [kən’vɛnʃənl] adj. 符合习俗的,传统的;常见的;惯例的

Lozanov experimented with teaching by direct suggestion during sleep, hypnosis and trance states, but found such procedures unnecessary. Hypnosis, yoga, Silva mind-control, religious ceremonies and faith healing are all associated with successful suggestion, but none of their techniques seem to be essential to it. Such rituals may be seen as placebos. Lozanov acknowledges that the ritual surrounding suggestion in his own system is also a placebo, but maintains that without such a placebo people are unable or afraid to tap the reserve capacity of their brains. Like any placebo, it must be dispensed with authority to be effective. Just as a doctor calls on the full power of autocratic suggestion by insisting that the patient take precisely this white capsule precisely three times a day before meals, Lozanov is categoric in insisting that the suggestopedic session be conducted exactly in the manner designated, by trained and accredited suggestopedic teachers.

While suggestopedia has gained some notoriety through success in the teaching of modern languages, few teachers are able to emulate the spectacular results of Lozanov and his associates. We can, perhaps, attribute mediocre results to an inadequate placebo effect. The students have not developed the appropriate mind set. They are often not motivated to learn through this method. They do not have enough ‘faith’. They do not see it as ‘real teaching’, especially as it does not seem to involve the ‘work’ they have learned to believe is essential to learning.

  • trance 英 [trɑːns] 美 [træns] n. 恍惚;出神;着迷,入迷 vt. 使恍惚;使发呆

  • rituals 英 [ˈrɪtʃʊəlz] 美 [‘rɪtʃʊəlz] n. 典礼;宗教仪式;固定程序(ritual的复数形式) adj. 惯常的

  • placebo 英 [plə’siːbəʊ] 美 [plə’sibo] n. 安慰剂;为死者所诵的晚祷词

  • dispense 英 [dɪ’spens] 美 [dɪ’spɛns] vt. 分配,分发;免除;执行

  • autocratic 英 [ɔːtə’krætɪk] 美 [,ɔtə’krætɪk] adj. 专制的;独裁的,专横的

  • precisely 英 [prɪ’saɪslɪ] 美 [prɪ’saɪsli] adv. 精确地;恰恰

  • capsule 英 [ˈkæpsju:l] 美 [ˈkæpsl;] n. 胶囊;[植] 蒴果;太空舱;小容器

  • accredit 英 [ə’kredɪt] 美 [ə’krɛdɪt] vt. 授权;信任;委派;归因于

  • notoriety 英 [nəʊtə’raɪɪtɪ] 美 [,notə’raɪəti] n. 恶名;声名狼藉;丑名

  • emulate 英 [’emjʊleɪt] 美 [‘ɛmjulet] vt. 仿真;模仿;尽力赶上;同…竞争

  • mediocre 英 [,miːdɪ’əʊkə] 美 [,midɪ’okɚ] adj. 普通的;平凡的;中等的

  • inadequate 英 [ɪn’ædɪkwət] 美 [ɪn’ædɪkwət] adj. 不充分的,不适当的

参考译文

教学心理

Bernie Neville的《暗示教学法》一书,主要着眼于激进的新式学习方法,讲述了情感、想象力以及潜意识在学习过程中所起的作用。书中讨论到了由George Lozanov提出的一个理论,那就是暗示的力量。

Lozanov的教学技巧主要基于这样的证据:在无意识状态下(他称此为非特异性心理反应)大脑所作出的各种联系要比在有意识状态下作出的持续更长时间。除了实验室证据可以证明这一点之外,我们自身的经历也表明我们通常会记住自己所观察到的周边信息,而忘记最开始的学习目的。回想一下几个月前或是几年前学过的课本,会发现我们能够轻易地回想起一些无头紧要的细节,比如书的颜色、装订、字体或是我们当时在图书馆阅读此书时所坐过的桌子,而不是回想起当时我们集中精力所看的课本的内容。再试着回想一下我们曾经认真聆听过的讲座,较之应该听到的演讲主题而言,我们会更容易回想起演讲者的容貌和举止风度,我们在报告厅的位置甚至是当时坏掉的空调。即使这些周边细节是比较容易忘掉的,但在催眠状态下,或是当我们像演心理剧那样在想象中重温当时的情景时,这些周边信息就能很快地被回想起来。而另一方面,演讲内容的细节信息早就被抛到九霄云外了。

这种现象的产生有一部分归因于常见的起反作用效果的学习方法(拼尽全力去记忆,令肌肉紧张,最终导致疲惫)。但同时它也恰恰反映出大脑运转的方式。据此Lozanov建立了他教育系统的核心:间接教学法,也叫暗示法。在他称之为暗示教学法(suuestopedia)的方法中,学生的注意力被从本该集中精力学习的课程上转移到了外部信息上。这样课程本身就成了外部信息,由此就可以被大脑的储备功能来处理。

外语学习中的暗示教学法是这一理论的绝佳例证。这种方法最新的改良版本(1980年)是学生边听音乐边朗读单词和课文。第一节课被分成了两部分:第一部分中,都是会伴随着古典音乐(莫扎特,贝多芬,勃拉姆斯)的旋律以缓慢且庄严的语调朗读课文。学生则跟着看课文。接着是数分钟的静默。下一部分中,学生们要听的是巴洛克音乐(巴赫,柯瑞里,亨德尔),此时教师用正常的语音语速朗读,而学生将书本合上。整节课上学生的注意力都是被动的,他们只是在听音乐而并不学习课本内容。

事先,学生们已经为这种语言学习体验做足了准备。通过与老师以及对体验效果感到满意的学生的交流,他们形成了一种期待,那就是接下来的学习将是简单轻松的,他们在一节课的时间里就可以成功记忆几百个外语词汇。在上课之前的讲话中,教师会向学生们简单介绍要讲的内容,但不是去“讲授”内容。同样,学生也会被告知在这个介绍的过程中,不要试图记住所介绍内容。

两段式课程结束几小时后,会有一个跟进课程鼓励学生们回忆刚才课上所学的内容。教学方法同样是间接的。学生还是不必集中精力去记忆这些词汇,而是尝试将这些词汇用于交流(比如通过游戏或是即兴演出)。这些方式在语育教学中十分常见。但间接暗示法的特殊之处就在于它完全致力于帮助回忆。对内容的学习是自动的,不费吹灰之力的,听着小曲儿就搞定了。教师的主要任务就是辅助学生将他们在模糊意识状态下所学的东西进行应用,因而使得学到的东西在有意识状态下也可以轻易获得。与传统教学模式的另外一点不同就是在间接暗示方法下,学生通常可以轻易地记住1000个生词以及语法点和成语。

Loaznov试验过在睡眠状态下、催眠状态下或精神恍惚之际给出的直接暗示的教学法,结果发现这些过程都是没有必要的。催眠术、瑜珈、西瓦心灵术、宗教仪式以及精神疗法都与成功的暗示相关,但看上去好像没有哪一种技巧是在使用暗示法时必不可少的。这些仪式可能被视作安慰剂。Lozanov认为他的体系中围绕暗示所进行的仪式实际上也是安慰剂。但同时也指出如果没有这种安慰剂,人们却不能甚至惧怕使用他们大脑的储备容量。正如任何一种安慰剂一样,它也要获得权威部门的认可才能有效果。正如医生充分利用权威暗示的力量,坚持要求病人必须每天三次、餐前服用某种白色胶囊一样,Lozanov也坚决要求暗示教学法一定要按照事先指定好的方式进行,并且要由培训过的合格教师来执行。

尽管凭借现代语言教学中的成功案例,暗示教学法有了一定程度的名气,但几乎没有一个教师能够取得像Lozanov和他的同僚那样显著的成就。也许我们可以将这些平庸的成果归咎为安慰剂效果不足。学生还没有形成适当的思维体系,在运用这种方法学习的时候他们没有充分被激发,他们没有足够的“信念”。他们认为这不是真正的教学,尤其是因为这种教学方法并没有涉及他们学会相信的学习之根本——那就是“学”。

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