【词汇】雅思阅读常用词(024)- Anti-Bullying

Cambridge 06 Test 4 – Passage3: Anti-Bullying

Persistent bullying is one of the worst experiences a child can face. How can it be prevented? Peter Smith, Professor of Psychology at the University of Sheffield, directed the Sheffield Anti-Bullying Intervention Project, funded by the Department for Education.Here he reports on his findings.

Bullying can take a variety of forms, from the verbal – being taunted or called hurtful names – to the physical – being kicked or shoved – as well as indirect forms, such as being excluded from social groups. A survey I conducted with Irene Whitney found that in British primary schools up to a quarter of pupils reported experience of bullying, which in about one in ten cases was persistent. There was less bullying in secondary schools, with about one in twenty-five suffering persistent bullying, but these cases may be particularly recalcitrant.
  • persistent 英 [pə’sɪst(ə)nt] 美 [pə’zɪstənt] adj. 坚持的;持久稳固的

  • bully 英 [‘bʊlɪ] 美 [‘bʊli] vt. 欺负;威吓

  • prevent 英 [prɪ’vent] 美 [pri’vɛnt] vt. 预防,防止;阻止

  • intervention 英 [ɪntə’venʃ(ə)n] 美 [,ɪntɚ’vɛnʃən] n. 介入;调停;妨碍

  • verbal 英 [‘vɜːb(ə)l] 美 [‘vɝbl] adj. 口头的;言语的;动词的;照字面的

  • taunt 英 [tɔːnt] 美 [tɔnt] vt. 奚落;逗弄

  • shove 英 [ʃʌv] 美 [ʃʌv] vt. 挤;强使;撞;猛推

  • conduct 英 [‘kɒndʌkt] 美 [kən’dʌkt] vt. 管理;引导;表现

  • recalcitrant 英 [rɪ’kælsɪtr(ə)nt] 美 [rɪ’kælsɪtrənt] adj. 反抗的;反对的;顽强的

Bullying is clearly unpleasant, and can make the child experiencing it feel unworthy and depressed. In extreme cases it can even lead to suicide, though this is thankfully rare. Victimised pupils are more likely to experience difficulties with interpersonal relationships as adults, while children who persistently bully are more likely to grow up to be physically violent, and convicted of anti-social offences.Until recently, not much was known about the topic, and little help was available to teachers to deal with bullying. Perhaps as a consequence, schools would often deny the problem. ‘There is no bullying at this school’ has been a common refrain, almost certainly untrue. Fortunately more schools are now saying: ‘There is not much bullying here, but when it occurs we have a clear policy for dealing with it.’
  • depress 英 [dɪ’pres] 美 [dɪ’prɛs] vt. 压抑;使沮丧;使萧条

  • rare 英 [reə] 美 [rɛr] adj. 稀有的;稀薄的;半熟的

  • convicted v. 定罪(convict的过去分词);证明…有罪 adj. 证明有罪的;已被判刑的

  • refrain 英 [rɪ’freɪn] 美 [rɪ’fren] n. 叠句,副歌;重复

Three factors are involved in this change. First is an awareness of the severity of the problem. Second, a number of resources to help tackle bullying have become available in Britain. For example, the Scottish Council for Research in Education produced a package of materials, Action Against Bullying, circulated to all schools in England and Wales as well as in Scotland in summer 1992, with a second pack, Supporting Schools Against Bullying, produced the following year. In Ireland, Guidelines on Countering Bullying Behaviour in Post-Primary Schools was published in 1993. Third, there is evidence that these materials work, and that schools can achieve something. This comes from carefully conducted ‘before and after’ evaluations of interventions in schools, monitored by a research team. In Norway, after an intervention campaign was introduced nationally, an evaluation of forty-two schools suggested that, over a two-year period, bullying was halved. The Sheffield investigation, which involved sixteen primary schools and seven secondary schools, found that most schools succeeded in reducing bullying.Evidence suggests that a key step is to develop a policy on bullying, saying clearly what is meant by bullying, and giving explicit guidelines on what will be done if it occurs, what records will be kept, who will be informed, what sanctions will be employed. The policy should be developed through consultation, over a period of time – not just imposed from the head teacher’s office! Pupils, parents and staff should feel they have been involved in the policy, which needs to be disseminated and implemented effectively.
  • tackle 英 [‘tæk(ə)l] 美 [‘tækl] n. 滑车;装备;用具;扭倒 vi. 扭倒;拦截抢球 vt. 处理;抓住;固定;与…交涉

  • halve 英 [hɑːv] 美 [hæv] vt. 二等分;把……减半

  • explicit 英 [ɪk’splɪsɪt; ek-] 美 [ɪk’splɪsɪt] adj. 明确的;清楚的;直率的;详述的

  • sanction 英 [‘sæŋ(k)ʃ(ə)n] 美 [‘sæŋkʃən] n. 制裁,处罚;认可;支持

  • consultation 英 [kɒnsəl’teɪʃ(ə)n] 美 [,kɑnsl’teʃən] n. 咨询;磋商;[临床] 会诊;讨论会

  • impose 英 [ɪm’pəʊz] 美 [ɪm’poz] vt. 强加;征税;以…欺骗 

  • disseminate 英 [dɪ’semɪneɪt] 美 [dɪ’sɛmɪnet] vt. 宣传,传播;散布

  • implement 英 [‘ɪmplɪm(ə)nt] 美 [‘ɪmplɪmɛnt] vt. 实施,执行;实现,使生效

Other actions can be taken to back up the policy. There are ways of dealing with the topic through the curriculum, using video, drama and literature. These are useful for raising awareness, and can best be tied in to early phases of development, while the school is starting to discuss the issue of bullying. They are also useful in renewing the policy for new pupils, or revising it in the light of experience. But curriculum work alone may only have short-term effects; it should be an addition to policy work, not a substitute.There are also ways of working with individual pupils, or in small groups. Assertiveness training for pupils who are liable to be victims is worthwhile, and certain approaches to group bullying such as ‘no blame’, can be useful in changing the behaviour of bullying pupils without confronting them directly, although other sanctions may be needed for those who continue with persistent bullying.Work in the playground is important, too. One helpful step is to train lunchtime supervisors to distinguish bullying from playful fighting, and help them break up conflicts. Another possibility is to improve the playground environment, so that pupils are less likely to be led into bullying from boredom or frustration.With these developments, schools can expect that at least the most serious kinds of bullying can largely be prevented. The more effort put in and the wider the whole school involvement, the more substantial the results are likely to be. The reduction in bullying – and the consequent improvement in pupil happiness – is surely a worthwhile objective.
  • curriculum 英 [kə’rɪkjʊləm] 美 [kə’rɪkjələm] n. 课程 总课程

  • revise 英 [rɪ’vaɪz] 美 [rɪ’vaɪz] vi. 修订;校订;功课

  • substitute 英 [‘sʌbstɪtjuːt] 美 [‘sʌbstɪtut] n. 代用品;代替者

  • assertiveness 英 [ə’sə:tivnis] 美 [ə’sə:tivnis] n. 魄力,自信

  • confront 英 [kən’frʌnt] 美 [kən’frʌnt] vt. 面对;遭遇;比较

  • conflict 英 [‘kɒnflɪkt] 美 [‘kɑnflɪkt] n. 冲突,矛盾;斗争;争执

  • boredom 英 [‘bɔːdəm] 美 [‘bɔrdəm] n. 厌倦;令人厌烦的事物

  • frustration 英 [frʌ’streɪʃn] 美 [frʌ’streʃən] n. 挫折

  • substantial 英 [səb’stænʃ(ə)l] 美 [səbˈstænʃəl] adj. 大量的;实质的;内容充实的

参考译文

反欺凌

持续地遭到欺凌是一个孩子所能面临曲最糟糕的经历之一。怎样能防止欺凌行为呢? 谢菲尔德大学心理学教授Peter Smith领导谢菲尔德反欺凌干预项目,这个项目是由教育部资助的。在这里他报告了他的发现。

欺凌弱生可以有不同的形式,从口头形式——谩骂或喊叫伤人自尊的名字,到身体上的攻击——猛踢或猛推别人,还有间接形式,如将别人排挤在社团之外。我和Irene Whitney一起进行的调查发现:在英国的小学,高达1/4的学生报告说受过欺负,其中1/10的欺凌事件是经常发生的。中学的欺凌事件少一些,大约有1/25的学生一直遭受欺凌,但是这些事件可能尤其顽固不化。

受欺负显然是让人不愉快的,可能让受害的孩子感到自己没用和沮丧。在极端情况下,还会导致孩子自杀,幸亏此类事件很少发生。受害学生在成年之后更可能有人际交往方面的困难。但是一直欺负别人的孩子长大以后很可能非常暴力,会被指控有反社会的违法行为。

一直到近来,关于欺凌问题,人们知之不多,老师也几乎得不到任何帮助来处理此类事件。也许导致的结果是,学校常常会否认此问题的存在。“这所学校没有欺凌弱生的事情”一直是常见的老套说法,但是几乎是不真实的回答。幸运的是,现在越来越多的学校开始说:“这里欺负弱生的事情不多,但是一旦发生,我们会有明确的政策来处理此类事件。”

有三个因素导致了这一变化。第一是意识到了问题的严重性。第二,在英国,人们已经可以得到很多有助于解决欺凌问题的资源。例如:苏格兰教育研究委员会推出了一揽子资料——《反对欺凌行动》,在1992年夏天分发给英格兰、威尔士以及苏格兰的所有学校。1993年又拿出了第二个一揽子方案——《支持学校抵抗欺凌》。在爱尔兰,《关于后小学阶段欺凌行为的对策》在1993年出版。第三,有证据表明这些材料是有效的,学校也取得了一些成绩。此证据来自于仔细开展并受到研究团队监控的评估,评价了学校干预“前后”的效果。在挪威,对42所学校的评估表明,全国范围内开展干预宣传活动后,欺凌事件在两年之内数量减半。谢菲尔德的调查涉及16所小学和7所中学,发现大多数学校成功地减少了欺凌事件。

证据表明关键步骤是制定出一项关于欺凌弱生的政策,明确表明欺凌的含义,给出详细的指导方针,说明针对欺凌弱生所采取的行动、所进行的记录、所通知的相关人士、所采取的制裁。应当通过征求意见并经过一段时间来制定政策——不仅仅是由校长来强制实行。应当让学生、家长和教职员工感到自己也参与了政策制定,因为这项政策需要有效地进行传播和实施。

也可以采取其他的行动来支持此项政策。可以通过使用诸如录像、戏剧和文学的课程途径来处理欺凌弱生的问题。这些方法有助于提高意识,能够最好地配合学校刚开始讨论欺凌问题的早期发展阶段。向新生重申政策或根据经验进行政策修订也是有效的。但是课程途径本身可能只有短期效用,它应当成为政策工作的补充方法而非替代方法。

也有和个别学生或小团队进行合作的方法。对易成为受害者的学生进行信心培训是值得进行的,对于团队欺凌可采取某些方法,如“不谴责”可以有助于改变欺负人的学生的欺凌行为,而无须直接与他们对抗,当然对于那些一直欺负弱生的学生,还是需要其他的制裁方法。

在校园操场的工作也是很重要的。一个有用的方法是对午餐监督人进行培训,使其能够区分欺凌和嬉闹打斗,帮助他们制止冲突。还有一种可能性是提高校园操场环境,从而使学生不太可能因为无聊和受挫去欺负别人。

鉴于以上政策和方法的发展,学校至少有望期待最严重的欺凌事件能得到最大限度的预防。投入的努力越大,学校整体参与越广泛,效果就可能越显著。欺凌事件的下降——及学生幸福感的随之提高——的确是一个值得为之努力的目标。

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