【词汇】雅思阅读常用词(015)- Climate Change and the Inuit

Cambridge 06 Test 1 -Passage 3: Climate Change and the Inuit

Unusual incidents are being reported across the Arctic. Inuit families going off on snowmobiles to prepare their summer hunting camps have found themselves cut off from home by a sea of mud, following early thaws. There are reports of igloos losing their insulating properties as the snow drips and refreezes, of lakes draining into the sea as permafrost melts, and sea ice breaking up earlier than usual, carrying seals beyond the reach of hunters. Climate change may still be a rather abstract idea to most of us, but in the Arctic it is already having dramatic effects – if summertime ice continues to shrink at its present rate, the Arctic Ocean could soon become virtually ice-free in summer. The knock-on effects are likely to include more warming, cloudier skies, increased precipitation and higher sea levels. Scientists are increasingly keen to find out what’s going on because they consider the Arctic the ‘canary in the mine’ for global warming – a warning of what’s in store for the rest of the world.

For the Inuit the problem is urgent. They live in precarious balance with one of the toughest environments on earth. Climate change, whatever its causes, is a direct threat to their way of life. Nobody knows the Arctic as well as the locals, which is why they are not content simply to stand back and let outside experts tell them what’s happening. In Canada, where the Inuit people are jealously guarding their hard-won autonomy in the country’s newest territory, Nunavut, they believe their best hope of survival in this changing environment lies in combining their ancestral knowledge with the best of modern science. This is a challenge in itself.

The Canadian Arctic is a vast, treeless polar desert that’s covered with snow for most of the year. Venture into this terrain and you get some idea of the hardships facing anyone who calls this home. Farming is out of the question and nature offers meagre pickings. Humans first settled in the Arctic a mere 4,500 years ago, surviving by exploiting sea mammals and fish. The environment tested them to the limits: sometimes the colonists were successful, sometimes they failed and vanished. But around a thousand years ago, one group emerged that was uniquely well adapted to cope with the Arctic environment. These Thule people moved in from Alaska, bringing kayaks, sleds, dogs, pottery and iron tools. They are the ancestors of today’s Inuit people.

Life for the descendants of the Thule people is still harsh. Nunavut is 1.9 million square kilometres of rock and ice, and a handful of islands around the North Pole. It’s currently home to 2,500 people, all but a handful of them indigenous Inuit. Over the past 40 years, most have abandoned their nomadic ways and settled in the territory’s 28 isolated communities, but they still rely heavily on nature to provide food and clothing. Provisions available in local shops have to be flown into Nunavut on one of the most costly air networks in the world, or brought by supply ship during the few ice-free weeks of summer. It would cost a family around £7,000 a year to replace meat they obtained themselves through hunting with imported meat. Economic opportunities are scarce, and for many people state benefits are their only income.

While the Inuit may not actually starve if hunting and trapping are curtailed by climate change, there has certainly been an impact on people’s health. Obesity, heart disease and diabetes are beginning to appear in a people for whom these have never before been problems. There has been a crisis of identity as the traditional skills of hunting, trapping and preparing skins have begun to disappear. In Nunavut’s ‘igloo and email’ society, where adults who were born in igloos have children who may never have been out on the land, there’s a high incidence of depression.

With so much at stake, the Inuit are determined to play a key role in teasing out the mysteries of climate change in the Arctic. Having survived there for centuries, they believe their wealth of traditional knowledge is vital to the task. And Western scientists are starting to draw on this wisdom, increasingly referred to as ‘lnuit Qaujimajatuqangit’, or IQ. ‘In the early days scientists ignored us when they came up here to study anything. They just figured these people don’t know very much so we won’t ask them,’ says John Amagoalik, an Inuit leader and politician. ‘But in recent years IQ has had much more credibility and weight.’ In fact it is now a requirement for anyone hoping to get permission to do research that they consult the communities, who are helping to set the research agenda to reflect their most important concerns. They can turn down applications from scientists they believe will work against their interests, or research projects that will impinge too much on their daily lives and traditional activities.

Some scientists doubt the value of traditional knowledge because the occupation of the Arctic doesn’t go back far enough. Others, however, point out that the first weather stations in the far north date back just 50 years. There are still huge gaps in our environmental knowledge, and despite the scientific onslaught, many predictions are no more than best guesses. IQ could help to bridge the gap and resolve the tremendous uncertainty about how much of what we’re seeing is natural capriciousness and how much is the consequence of human activity.





加拿大的北极圈是一片光秃秃的广阔的极地沙漠,终年覆盖着积雪。走进这里你会发现每个称这里为家的人面临的困境。农业在这里是不可能的,而自然条件又使得人们没有其他收获。人类最早在北极圈定居不过是在4 500年前,靠捕食海洋哺乳动物和鱼类为生。环境把他们推向极限;有时殖民者成功,有时他们失败或消失。但是大约1 000年前有一个叫做图勒人的部落从阿拉斯加来到这里,带来了皮船、雪橇、猎狗、陶器和铁制工具。他们是今天因纽特人的祖先。

生活对于图勒人的后代依然是艰苦的。努勒维特是一块由岩石、冰川和北极附近少数几个岛屿组成的190万平方公里的区域,生活着包括少数土著因纽特人在内的2 500人。在过去的40年里,绝大多数人放弃了他们游牧式的生活习惯并分别住在28个独立的社区里。他们依旧依赖自然提供食物和衣物。在商店里出售的生活必需品只能通过世界上最昂贵的空运系统运达或是在非冰封期用运输船运来。如果要购买进口肉类来代替他们自己打猎获得的肉类,每年每个家庭就得花上约7 000英镑。经济机会少得可怜,对很多人来说政府的福利是他们唯一的收人。



有的科学家置疑传统知识的价值.理由是因纽特人生活在当地的时间并不长。其他人指出在北方最早设立的气象站也只有50年。我们对气候的了解还有很多不足。尽管这些攻击的存在,很多预测还只是猜测。我们看到的有多少是自然的变化无常?哪些是人类活动的结果?而 IQ也许会帮助弥合分歧,告诉我们未知的答案。