【托福】2017年9月16日托福真题回忆

2017年9月16日托福真题回忆分享给大家,可供参考。

口语

Task 1

Of all the following, which field do you think governments should invest in the most?

1. land exploration

2. education

3. health care

Task 2

Some people think ,with the development of technology and Internet,libraries will disappear,while others think libraries are always necessary. Which one do you agree, and please give specific details to support your opinion.

Task 3

suggestion: school should set up a second-hand market.

原因1:students can save money。

原因2:help students get rid of unwanted items。

听力态度:agree。

原因1:own example: saved money on the market,also got rid of her unwanted stuff in the dorm, giving her more space。

Task 4

intercropping

定义:把两种植物种到一起,有利于彼此的生长。

听力例子:将corn 和 beans种在一起,对两种植物都有利。Beans可以为corn提供氮元素作为养料,而corn长得很高可以支撑beans的生长。

Task 5

问题:男生下周要去找教授答疑,但是答疑的时间变了,和他的排练时间发生了冲突。

解决方案1:不去参加排练。

解决方案2:把问题用e-mail发给教授,然后去参加排练。

Task 6

话题:两种降低行政成本来获得盈利的策略。

要点1:new energy

例子1:种树,可以遮阴避风,可以节约夏天和冬天的能源消耗费用。

要点2:decrease traveling

例子2:通讯时使用网络视频,节省下交通费和住宿费。

听力

Conversation 1

话题分类:student and professor

内容回忆:交叉学科的人类学的论文,学校不然学生做,说是因为有三个core courses没有完成,学生找老师商量怎么办。老师同意给她写一个letter给学校支持她开这个论文。

Conversation 2

话题分类:学生和老师讨论作业得分低的原因

内容回忆:学生要写一篇关于Emily Dickonsin的文章,老师给了低分,是因为学生write everything a bit,没有focus。老师举例说应该着重写一个方面,比如写一个Susan 做为Emily的朋友,是如何在生活中影响Emily的以及Emily如何将friend这个theme体现在她的诗歌里的。

Lecture 1

学科分类:生物

标题:wild life animal

内容回忆:讲的是一个ideal free distribution简称IFD theory.就是说动物在habitat里面,理想的状态(没有障碍)下会自行根据resource的多少来分配自己的数量。举了个例子。一种fish,一种dolphin。

Lecture 2 

学科分类:艺术

标题:music appreciation

内容回忆:Puccini的歌剧madam butterfly的第一次opening比较失败,因为没有按照传统分三块,并且内容有一句重复这个作家之前的曲子,这导致观众很不满意。后来经过三个月的修改,Puccini把第二段divide了一下变成第三段,做了一些修改去迎合观众的口味。

Lecture 3 

学科分类:商业

标题:business management

内容回忆:先介绍problem和crisis的区别就是后者是potential存在的。后面介绍了要在crisis出现前就预测到并且给出解决方案,这是一个公司public relationship department应该做的。crisis对公司有时候是挑战也是opportunity,比如公司可以通过此来改变自己的老套路以及可以发现解决crisis成功的人才进行继续培养。

Lecture 4

学科分类:生态

标题:ecology class

内容回忆: 主要讲了mutualism 互惠共生。yucca plants 和 yucca moths 的关系。plant必须依赖moth是因为它的pollen很sticky,其他蜜蜂没办法传播。moth依赖plant是因为她的幼虫feed on这种plant。moth为了保证它的offspring,会在每朵花上面下1-3个人eggs。plant为了保障它的花不被比3个多的幼虫吃掉,会在花期掉一些花,以此甩掉一部分幼虫。moth为了避免掉花带来的风险,就会均匀分布他的eggs而不是在某几多花上下全部的eggs。

阅读

Passage One

学科分类:地质类

题目:the formation of earth atmosphere

内容回忆:

1.地球形成的时候是H和HE 为什么和现在不同?

2.hold gas的主要原因是gravity和escape velocity,所以那两种很轻的气体就跑了。

3.火山爆发导致二氧化碳出现,其溶于水作为降雨进入到海洋以及是有机生物体的碳元素的来源。

4.氮气因为很少溶于水所以在大气中含量较高,是现在大气的主要气体。

词汇题:

1. predominantly – mainly

2. Augment – supplement

3. account for – explanation

4. constitutes – makes up

Passage Two

学科分类:历史

题目:Documenting the Incas

原文:

Documenting the Incas

The Incans ruled a vast empire in western South America when the Spaniards encountered them in the sixteenth century. Although the Incas had no writing system of their own, historical information about Incas is available to researchers because early Spaniards wrote documents about them. However, there are drawbacks to use the written record. First, the Spanish writers were describing activities and institutions that were very different from their own, but they often described Inca culture in terms of their own society. As an example, consider the list of kings given by the Incas. As presented in the historical chronology, Spanish sources indicate there were thirteen kings who ruled sequentially. The names were given to them by Inca informants. However, one school of thought in Inca studies suggests that the names were not actual people, but, rather, titles filled by different individuals. Thus, the number of actual kings may have been fewer, and several titles may have been filled at the same time. The early Spanish writers, being unfamiliar with such a system of titles, simply translated it into something they were familiar with (a succession of kings). Given that the Inca empire expanded only during the time of the last four kings, or as a result of the actions of the individuals in those four positions, this question is not deemed significant for an understanding of the Incas. But the example shows that biases and inaccuracies may have been introduced inadvertently from the very beginning of the written Spanish reports about the Incas. Moreover, early writers often copied information from each other—so misinformation was likely to be passed on and accepted as true by later scholars.

Second, both Spanish writers and Incan informants sometimes had motives for being deliberately deceitful. For example, in an effort to gain status in the Spaniards’ eyes, Incas might say that they formerly had been more important in the Inca empire than they actually were. Spanish officials as well were occasionally untruthful when it served their purposes. For example, Spaniards might deliberately underreport the productivity of a region under their authority so they could sell the additional products and keep the money, rather than hand it over to the Spanish Crown.

Third, it should be noted that the Spaniards’ main sources of information were the Incas themselves, often members of the Inca ruling class. Therefore, what was recorded was the Incas’ point of view about their own history and empire. Some modern authorities question whether the history of Incas happened as they said it did. Although some of their history is certainly more myth than truth, many, if not most, scholars agree that the history of the last four Inca kings is probably accurate. The same is true of other things told to the Spanish writers: the more recently an event is said to have occurred, the more likely it is to have actually happened.

A fourth problem relates to the nature of the Inca conquests of the other people in the Americas before the Spanish arrived and how accurate the accounts of those conquests are—whether related by the Spaniards or by the Incas on whom they relied. It was certainly in the Inca’s interest to describe themselves as invincible and just. However, lacking accounts by conquered people about their interactions with the Incas, it is unknown how much of the information of the Inca conquest as related by the ruling class is factual.

Finally, there is a certain vagueness in the historical record regarding places and names. Many Spanish writers listed places they had visited within the empire, including both provinces and towns. However, other writers traveling along the same routes sometimes recounted different lists of places. In addition, it is difficult to identify the exact locations of towns and other geographic points of reference because of the widespread movements of people over the past five centuries.

For all these reasons, the historical record must be carefully evaluated to determine whether it is accurate and to verify the locations of past events. One approach is to cross-check information from a number of authors. Another approach is to conduct archaeological research. Regardless of the problems, historical documents review some important information about the Incas.

Paragraph 1

The Incans ruled a vast empire in western South America when the Spaniards encountered them in the sixteenth century. Although the Incas had no writing system of their own, historical information about Incas is available to researchers because early Spaniards wrote documents about them. However, there are drawbacks to use the written record. First, the Spanish writers were describing activities and institutions 【that were very different from their own】, but they often described Inca culture in terms of their own society. As an example, consider the list of kings given by the Incas. As presented in the historical chronology, Spanish sources indicate there were thirteen kings who ruled sequentially. The names were given to them by Inca informants. However, one school of thought in Inca studies suggests that the names were not actual people, but, rather, titles filled by different individuals. Thus, the number of actual kings may have been fewer, and several titles may have been filled at the same time. The early Spanish writers, being unfamiliar with such a system of titles, simply translated it into something they were familiar with (a succession of kings). Given that the Inca empire expanded only during the time of the last four kings, or as a result of the actions of the individuals in those four positions, this question is not deemed significant for an understanding of the Incas. But the example shows that biases and inaccuracies may have been introduced inadvertently from the very beginning of the written Spanish reports about the Incas. Moreover, early writers often copied information from each other—so misinformation was likely to be passed on and accepted as true by later scholars.

1. The word “vast” in the passage is closest in meaning to

¡ ancient

¡ wealthy

¡ powerful

¡ extensive

2. The word “drawbacks” in the passage is closest in meaning to

¡ requirements

¡ techniques

¡ exceptions

¡ disadvantages

3. The word ” sequentially ” in the passage is closest in meaning to

¡ Secretly

¡ one after another

¡ formerly

¡ in partnership with each other

4. According to paragraph 1, why does the written record about the Incan civilization depend on the reports of Spaniards?

¡ The Incas destroyed their written records to prevent the Spaniards from benefiting from them.

¡ The Incas did not have a writing system.

¡ The Spaniards destroyed all records written by the Incas.

¡ Incan records were written on materials that do not preserve well.

5. According to paragraph 1, sixteenth century’s Spaniards may have been incorrect about which of the following aspects of the Incan empire

¡ its size during the reigns of the last four kings

¡ the total number of Incan kings

¡ the kinds of power that Incan kings were able to exercise

¡ the extent to which Incan kings were able to control activities within their empire

6. Which of the following can be inferred from paragraph 1 about the Incan system of rulers?

¡ It was first introduced when the expansion of the Incan empire began.

¡ It required that multi-rulers share a particular title at the same time.

¡ It was sometimes confusing to the Incan informants of the Spaniards.

¡ It was unlike the system used in sixteenth century Spain.

Paragraph 2

Second, both Spanish writers and Incan informants sometimes had motives for being deliberately deceitful. For example, in an effort to gain status in the Spaniards’ eyes, Incas might say that they formerly had been more important in the Inca empire than they actually were. Spanish officials as well were occasionally untruthful when it served their purposes. For example, Spaniards might deliberately underreport the productivity of a region under their authority so they could sell the additional products and keep the money, rather than hand it over to the Spanish Crown.

7. Which of the following is mentioned in paragraph 2 as a possible motive for deliberate inaccuracy in official Spanish reports of the Incas?

¡ The desire of some Spanish officials to appear more important than they really were

¡ The need to please Spanish rulers by making productivity seem greater than it really was

¡ The desire of the Incas to make their empire seem more successful than it really was

¡ The desire of most Spanish officials to enrich themselves

Paragraph 3

Third, it should be noted that the Spaniards’ main sources of information were the Incas themselves, often members of the Inca ruling class. Therefore, what was recorded was the Incas’ point of view about their own history and empire. Some modern authorities question whether the history of Incas happened as they said it did. Although some of their history is certainly more myth than truth, many, if not most, scholars agree that the history of the last four Inca kings is probably accurate. The same is true of other things told to the Spanish writers: the more recently an event is said to have occurred, the more likely it is to have actually happened.

8. Why does the author indicate that the Spaniards’ main sources of information were the Incas themselves

¡ To argue that the Spaniards made great efforts to obtain the most information

¡ To explain why some scholars think that the documentary history of the Incan empire may not be correct

¡ To question the idea that more recent events in the Incan empire are more likely to be accurate than are more ancient ones

¡ To explain how scholars are able to determine that the history of the last

four Incan kings is probably correct

Paragraph 4

A fourth problem relates to the nature of the Inca conquests of the other people in the Americas before the Spanish arrived and how accurate the accounts of those conquests are—whether related by the Spaniards or by the Incas on whom they relied. It was certainly in the Inca’s interest to describe themselves as invincible and just. However, lacking accounts by conquered people about their interactions with the Incas, it is unknown how much of the information of the Inca conquest as related by the ruling class is factual.

9. The word “just” in the passage is closest in meaning to

¡ fair

¡ strong

¡ independent

¡ wise

10. According to paragraph 4, why is there some doubt whether Spanish accounts of the Incan conquests of other people are accurate?

¡ The Spaniards included some information about which Incan informants disagreed.

¡ The conquered people’s tales of the Incan conquests sometimes differed from the Inca’s tales of them

¡ The Spanish accounts of the Incan conquest were based on information from Incan informants only.

¡ Some archaeological evidence does not support the Spanish accounts.

Paragraph 5

Finally, there is a certain vagueness in the historical record regarding places and names. Many Spanish writers listed places they had visited within the empire, including both provinces and towns. However, other writers traveling along the same routes sometimes recounted different lists of places. In addition, it is difficult to identify the exact locations of towns and other geographic points of reference because of the widespread movements of people over the past five centuries.

11. According to paragraph 5, what is a reason that place names in the historical record are sometimes vague?

¡ When people moved they often gave new provinces and towns the same names as places they came from.

¡ Different writers in historical record listed different names for places along the same routes.

¡ Most writers of the historical record traveled little within the empire.

¡ The names of provinces and towns often did not reflect geographic points

of reference.

Paragraph 6

For all these reasons, the historical record must be carefully evaluated to determine whether it is accurate and to verify the locations of past events. One approach is to cross-check information from a number of authors. Another approach is to conduct archaeological research. Regardless of the problems, historical documents review some important information about the Incas.

12. Which of the following is mentioned in paragraph 6 as a method for verifying accuracy of an account of a past event?

¡ Comparing accounts of the event given by different writers

¡ Investigating whether a particular author’s accounts of other events have proved accurate

¡ Investigating whether the author of an account actually presented as the event described.

¡ Determining whether the author of an account was able to crosscheck information with multiple informants

Paragraph 1

The Incans ruled a vast empire in western South America when the Spaniards encountered them in the sixteenth century. ■ Although the Incas had no writing system of their own, historical information about Incas is available to researchers because early Spaniards wrote documents about them. ■ However, there are drawbacks to use the written record. ■ First, the Spanish writers were describing activities and institutions that were very different from their own, but they often described Inca culture in terms of their own society. ■ As an example, consider the list of kings given by the Incas. As presented in the historical chronology, Spanish sources indicate there were thirteen kings who ruled sequentially. The names were given to them by Inca informants. However, one school of thought in Inca studies suggests that the names were not actual people, but, rather, titles filled by different individuals. Thus, the number of actual kings may have been fewer, and several titles may have been filled at the same time. The early Spanish writers, being unfamiliar with such a system of titles, simply translated it into something they were familiar with (a succession of kings). Given that the Inca empire expanded only during the time of the last four kings, or as a result of the actions of the individuals in those four positions, this question is not deemed significant for an understanding of the Incas. But the example shows that biases and inaccuracies may have been introduced inadvertently from the very beginning of the written Spanish reports about the Incas. Moreover, early writers often copied information from each other—so misinformation was likely to be passed on and accepted as true by later scholars.

13. Look at the four squares [■ ] that indicate where the following sentence can be added to the passage.

Official accounts, legal papers, and letters written during that period provide a wealth of information about the Incan empire and the Incas’ way of life.

Where would the sentence best fit?

14. Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some answer choices do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.

The accuracy of the historical record concerning the Incas is problematic.

1. Numerous aspects of Incan life were recorded in the sixteenth century but many historical documents created at this time were lost or destroyed.

2. Many Spaniards were interested primarily in the expansion of the Incan empire and therefore ignored other periods of Incan history.

3. The fact 【that the Incan informants remained sources of information about themselves 】as well as inconsistencies in place names call the sound aspects of the accounts into question.

4. Descriptions of Incan society may often be influenced by the cultural biases of people writing about Incas.

5. Incorrect information may sometimes have been knowingly included in historical records because it was advantageous to the person including such information.

6. The movement of people due to the Incan conquest and the settlement of the Spanish has caused much confusion about place names in the historical record.

Passage Three

学科分类:生物

题目:The most common bird

内容回忆:

1.讲了一种红嘴鸟在非洲是很常见的。

2.这种鸟feed on grass,而grass是seasonal 出现和消失的。

3.这种鸟为了避免食物短缺,就要migrate。

4,在grass开始长的时候这种鸟又迁移回来。

5.现在Africa种了很多cereals,这种鸟就是一种pest,每年会damage很多cereals的产量。

词汇题:

1. evershifting

2. inhospitable – unfavorable

3. subsequent – continually

4. over estimate – may be higher

写作

综合写作

Reading

Heinrich Schliemann discovered a golden mask of warrior king. He claimed that the golden mask is the Mask of Agamemnon. However, the archaeology industry suspects that the golden mask is a fake. There are three reasons for that.

Firstly, Schliemann has a reputation of faking his discovery and excavation. He used to buy an antique from a craftsman and claim that the item is from ancient Greek until it was identified a fake. Therefore, the golden mask is very suspicious and Schliemann is incredible.

Secondly, some features of the golden mask are different from the authentic golden masks from Ancient Greek. Ancient Greek golden masks have very flat appearance and no pointed hairs. The golden mask of warrior king discovered by Schliemann has very well-defined lips and pointed beard. Therefore, the golden mask is a fake.

Thirdly, Schliemann immediately shut down the site where the golden mask is discovered after he found the golden mask. This is a very suspicious behavior. Usually archeologist will continue to excavate the site in the hope of finding more cultural information about the discovery, such as the historical context and identify whose mask it is. More information about the mask could have been discovered to identify the mask, however, Schliemann close the site in a rush, revealing his afraid of being found that the mask is a fake.

Lecture

Though many archeologists think the golden mask of warrior king is a fake, but I think that is an authentic item from Ancient Greek. There are three reasons to refute the points in the passage.

Firstly, Schliemann did have a reputation of faking discovery and excavation. However, for this mask, it’s not easy to fake. The Greek government is familiar with Schliemann’s reputation of dishonesty and specifically assigned a supervisor to closely supervise and monitor Schliemann’s work of excavation. If Schliemann really cheated on this discovery, it’s hard to do so without being caught by the supervisor.

Secondly, a golden mask of lion from Ancient Greek, which was proved an authentic antique, was compared with the golden mask of warrior king. The golden lion mask also has three-dimensioned lips and nose, and all pointed hair. All the features are comparable to the golden mask of warrior king.

Thirdly, the timing of the site being shut down immediately after the golden mask was discovered can be explained. Schliemann was not a real archeologist but a treasure hunter. It fitted a treasure hunter’s habit to close the site immediately after he depleted all the valuable things in the site. Therefore, Schliemann’s behavior of shutting down the site is not suspicious.

Question: summarize the points in the lecture, make sure how they oppose the specific points in the reading message.

独立写作

Children rely too much on the technology, like computers, smart phones, video games for fun and entertainment. Playing simpler toys or playing outside with friends would be better for children’s development.

 

 

 

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