【词汇】托福同义词串串烧(124)- Roman Cultural Influence on Britain

TPO-47-1 Roman Cultural Influence on Britain

After the Roman Empire’s conquest of Britain in the first century A.D., the presence of administrators, merchants, and troops on British soil, along with the natural flow of ideas and goods from the rest of the empire, had an enormous influence on life in the British Isles. Cultural influences were of three types: the bringing of objects, the transfer of craft workers, and the introduction of massive civil architecture. Many objects were not art in even the broadest sense and comprised utilitarian items of clothing, utensils, and equipment. We should not underestimate the social status associated with such mundane possessions which had not previously been available. The flooding of Britain with red-gloss pottery from Gaul (modern-day France), decorated with scenes from Classical mythology, probably brought many into contact with the styles and artistic concepts of the Greco-Roman world for the first time, whether or not the symbolism was understood. Mass-produced goods were accompanied by fewer more aesthetically impressive objects such as statuettes. Such pieces perhaps first came with officials for their own religious worship; others were then acquired by native leaders as diplomatic gifts or by purchase. Once seen by the natives, such objects created a fashion which rapidly spread through the province.

In the most extreme instances, natives literally bought the whole package of Roman culture. The Fishbourne villa, built in the third quarter of the first century A.D., probably for the native client king Cogidubnus, amply illustrates his Roman pretensions. It was constructed in the latest Italian style with imported marbles and stylish mosaics. It was lavishly furnished with imported sculptures and other Classical objects. A visitor from Rome would have recognized its owner as a participant in the contemporary culture of the empire, not at all provincial in taste. Even if those from the traditional families looked down on him, they would have been unable to dismiss him as uncultured. Although exceptional, this demonstrates how new cultural symbols bound provincials to the identity of the Roman world.

Such examples established a standard to be copied. One result was an influx of craft worker, particularly those skilled in artistic media like stone-carving which had not existed before the conquest. Civilian workers came mostly from Gaul and Germany. The magnificent temple built beside the sacred spring at Bath was constructed only about twenty years after the conquest. Its detail shows that it was carved by artists from northeast Gaul. In the absence of a tradition of Classical stone-carving and building, the desire to develop Roman amenities would have been difficult to fulfill. Administrators thus used their personal contacts to put the Britons in touch with architects and masons. As many of the officials in Britain had strong links with Gaul, it is not surprising that early Roman Britain owes much to craft workers from that area. Local workshops did develop and stylistically similar groups of sculpture show how skills in this new medium became widerspread. Likewise, skills in the use of mosaic, wall painting, ceramic decoration, and metal-working developed throughout the province with the eventual emergence of characteristically Romano-British styles.

This art had a major impact on the native peoples, and one of the most important factors was a change in the scale of buildings. Pre-Roman Britain was highly localized, with people rarely traveling beyond their own region. On occasion large groups amassed for war or religious festivals, but society remained centered on small communities. Architecture of this era reflected this with even the largest of the fortified towns and hill forts containing no more than clusters of medium-sized structures. The spaces inside even the largest roundhouses were modest, and the use of rounded shapes and organic building materials gave buildings a human scale. But the effect of Roman civil architecture was significant. The sheer size of space enclosed within buildings like the basilica of London must have been astonishing. This was an architecture of dominance in which subject peoples were literally made to feel small by buildings that epitomized imperial power. Supremacy was accentuated by the unyielding straight lines of both individual buildings and planned settlements since these too provided a marked contrast with the natural curvilinear shapes dominant in the native realm.


题目

【题目】1. The word “mundane” in the passage is closest in meaning to

○material

○ordinary

○valued

○useful

【题目】2. The word “lavishly” in the passage is closest in meaning to

○exclusively

○additionally

○appropriately

○richly

【题目】3. The word “sacred” in the passage is closet in meaning to

○holy

○ancient

○natural

○secret

【题目】4. The word “modest” in the passage in closet in meaning to

○comfortable

○limited in number

○poorly lit

○not large


单词解释和答案

1、mundane

[mun·dane || ‘mʌndeɪn]

adj.  现世的, 宇宙的, 世俗的

【反义词】:  heavenly

【原句】: We should not underestimate the social status associated with such mundane possessions which had not previously been available.

【题目】1. The word “mundane” in the passage is closest in meaning to

○material

○ordinary★

○valued

○useful


2、lavishly

adv.  浪费地; 丰富地

【同义词】:  extravagantly / richly

【原句】: It was constructed in the latest Italian style with imported marbles and stylish mosaics. It was lavishly furnished with imported sculptures and other Classical objects.

【题目】2. The word “lavishly” in the passage is closest in meaning to

○exclusively

○additionally

○appropriately

○richly★


3、sacred

[sa·cred || ‘seɪkrɪd]

adj.  神的, 宗教的; 不可侵犯的; 神圣的; 庄严的

【同义词】:  holy / religious / spiritual

【反义词】:  profane

【原句】: The magnificent temple built beside the sacred spring at Bath was constructed only about twenty years after the conquest. Its detail shows that it was carved by artists from northeast Gaul.

【题目】3. The word “sacred” in the passage is closet in meaning to

○holy★

○ancient

○natural

○secret


4、modest

[mod·est || ‘mɑdɪst /’mɒ-]

adj.  谦逊的, 适度的, 羞怯的

【同义词】:  bashful / humble / plain / quiet  shy / simple / unpretentious

【反义词】:  arrogant / immodest

【原句】: The spaces inside even the largest roundhouses were modest, and the use of rounded shapes and organic building materials gave buildings a human scale.

【题目】4. The word “modest” in the passage in closet in meaning to

○comfortable

○limited in number

○poorly lit

○not large★


参考译文

罗马文化对英国的影响

在公元1世纪,罗马帝国征服英国之后,在英国土壤上管理人、商人和英国军队的存在,以及来自帝国其他地方的思想和商品的自然流动,对英国的生活产生巨大的影响。文化影响有三种类型:物品的引入、工艺师的迁移和大规模的民用建筑的引入。许多物品甚至从广义上来说都不是艺术(品),包括实用的衣物、餐具、设备。我们不应该低估这钱以前不曾有的平凡的所有物和社会地位之间的关系。英国充斥着来自高卢(现在的法国)的红色光泽的陶器,饰以古典神话中的场景,第一次让很多人接触到希腊罗马世界的的风格和艺术观念,不管是否能够理解其象征意义。大规模生产的商品伴随着少数外观更令人印象深刻的物体,如雕像。这些作品也许是首先是随着官员们进行宗教崇拜而到来的,其他人的被本土领导人作为外交馈赠或购买所获得。一旦被当地人观察到,这样的物品创建了一种时尚,在整个地区迅速蔓延。

在最极端的情况下,当地人简直接受了一整套的罗马文化。fishbourne别墅,建于公元1世纪第三季度,可能是为本地客户cogidubnus国王建造的,充分说明了他的罗马虚荣心。这个建筑使用最新的意大利风格建造的,用的是进口大理石和时尚的马赛克。它用豪华进口雕塑和其他古典事物装饰着。罗马的客人会将它的主人认作为帝国现代文化的参与者,而不是乡下人的品味。即使那些来自传统的家庭的看不起他,他们也无法将他视为没有文化的。虽然例外,这证明了新的文化符号将地方居民和罗马世界的身份绑定起来。

这样的例子建立了一个复制的标准。一个结果是大量的工艺师的流入,尤其是那些有艺术材料技能的,如石头雕刻,它在征服前并不存在。民工大多来自高卢和德国。在那神圣的春之泉旁建造的宏伟庙宇,是在征服后二十年左右才建造的。它的细节说明它是由东北高卢艺术家雕刻的。在没有传统的石材雕刻和建筑的情况下,想要开发罗马的设施就很难满足。因此,管理者运用他们的私下联系让英国人与建筑师和石匠接触。正如许多英国官员曾与高卢人联系紧密,早期罗马统治的英国(得艺术技艺)归功于来自那个地区的工艺师就不足为奇了。当地的工厂发展了,并且风格类似的雕塑群展示了这个新媒介技术如何变得普遍。同样的,使用马赛克、壁画、陶瓷装饰和金属加工的技巧也在整个地区得到发展,典型的罗马英国风格最终形成。

这种艺术对当地民族有着重大的影响,其中最重要的因素之一是建筑规模的变化。前罗马时代的英国是高度本地化的,很少有人在他们自己地区以外的地方旅行。有时候,会有大群的人为了战争或者宗教节日而聚集,但社会仍然集中在小社区。这个时代的建筑反映了这个(特点),连最大的设防的城镇和城堡所包含的建筑不超过中型。最大的土楼里的空间是也是不大的,和圆形的和有机建筑材料的使用赋予建筑人性化。但罗马民用建筑的影响显著。建筑封闭的空间的庞大规模一定是惊人的,比如伦敦的教堂。这是一个架构的优势,被奴役的人们是通过建筑可以感觉到自己的渺小,这些建筑是皇权的缩影。至高无上(感)被个别建筑和规划定居建筑的不屈的直线加强,因为这些也为本土自然曲线形状提供一个鲜明的对比。

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