【经济学人】The Prado’s renaissance 普拉多的文艺复兴

Europe
欧洲

Spanish Art: Exhibitionism
西班牙艺术:展览主义

The Prado’s renaissance.
普拉多的文艺复兴。

At the turn of this century the Prado, Spain’s premier art museum, slumbered in neglect.
本世纪之交,西班牙首屈一指的美术馆普拉多一度退出公众视野,处于沉寂当中。

Limited opening hours and an almost complete lack of information about its paintings seemed calculated to put off visitors.
开放时间有限而且几乎完全缺乏画展信息,这似乎是在有意敷衍游客。

Deliverance came with a law in 2003 granting it autonomy from the civil service.
随着2003年法律出台保障其自治权,普拉多获得自由。

Before that the museum’s staff ran the place in their own interest and the director had little power, says Eduardo Serra, a former defence minister who as chair of the Prado’s trustees pushed the law through.
在此之前博物馆的管理人员根据自身利益进行运作,馆长几乎没有权力,前任国防部长Eduardo Serra如是说。他同时是普拉多推进出台法律的受托公司的董事长。

To implement it he hired Miguel Zugaza, a shrewd manager, as director.
为了实施变革,他雇佣精明能干的Miguel Zugaza担任馆长。

Miguel Falomir, who was appointed as Mr Zugaza’s successor on March 21st, inherits a Prado that is flourishing.
Miguel Falomir于3月21日被任命为Zugaza先生的继任者,接手蓬勃发展的普拉多。

It attracts 3m visitors a year.
普拉多每年吸引三百万游客。

It has weathered state funding cuts: about 70% of its budget of 45 million euros ($49m) now comes from tickets, merchandising, fees from foreign exhibitions and sponsorship.
这经受住了国家资金削减的考验:其总预算为4500万欧元,其中70%来自门票,商品销售,国外展览费用和赞助费的收益。

Above all, the Prado has shed its provincialism.
最重要的是,普拉多脱离了狭隘主义。

“It was very introverted,” says Mr Falomir, an expert on Titian.
提香研究专家Falomir 先生说,“之前它相当封闭”。

It used to mount exhibitions only of Spanish painting.
普拉多过去只举办西班牙绘画展览。

When it branched out, with shows on Rubens and Titian, colleagues across Europe and America were sceptical.
当它开拓领域,举办有关鲁本斯和提香的展览时,欧洲和美国的同事表示怀疑。

“Not any more,” he adds.
“再没有其他的了”,他补充说。

Last summer’s blockbuster exhibition of three-quarters of the surviving work of Hieronymus Bosch was one that only the Prado, with its large Bosch collection, could have organised.
去年夏天普拉多展出了希罗宁姆斯·博希四分之三的现存作品,轰动一时,也只有普拉多拥有如此之多博希的藏品,能够组织得起这样规模的展览。

Mr Falomir still faces challenges.
Falomir先生仍然面临挑战。馆内禁止拍照和自拍。

All museums must cope with mass tourism.
博物馆必须能应对大量游客。

In a sensible compromise, entrance to the Prado is free for the last two hours of each day.
作为合乎情理的折中方案,每天最后俩小时进入普拉多是免费的。

Those who pay 15 euros to come earlier can contemplate Velazquez’s “Las Meninas” with fewer jostling tour parties.
要是支付15欧元提前进入,游客就可以避开推推挤挤的旅游团,细细品味委拉兹开斯的《宫娥》。

Photographs and selfies are banned.
在里面禁止拍照及自拍。

To counteract young Spaniards’ declining interest in the art of the past, Mr Falomir wants to bring in contemporary art inspired by the Prado’s collection.
为了抵消西班牙年轻人对过去的艺术作品兴趣的衰减,Falomir先生想要引进受普拉多藏品启发创作的当代艺术品。

As museums become more and more alike, the Prado’s collection remains unique.
虽然其他博物馆在不断趋于相似,普拉多的藏品仍保持着独特性。

Unlike the Louvre or London’s National Gallery, it is not encyclopaedic.
普拉多不像卢浮宫和伦敦国家美术馆那样包罗万象。

Its core is the royal collection, which reflects the tastes of Spain’s monarchs in its Golden Age.
反映西班牙黄金时期君主品味的皇家藏品是其核心。

That makes it “magnificently unbalanced”, says Mr Falomir.
Falomir先生说:“这使得普拉多的藏品呈现‘辉煌壮美式’地失衡。”

No other museum can count 200 Goyas, 90 Rubenses, 40 Titians or most of the surviving work of Velazquez or Bosch.
没有其他博物馆能拥有如此之多的大师手笔:包括戈雅的作品两百件,鲁本斯的作品九十件,提香的作品四十件和委拉兹开斯及博希遗作的绝大部分。

To mark the museum’s bicentenary in 2019 work will start on an extension designed by Norman Foster.
为了2019年的两百周年纪念日,博物馆将根据Norman Foster的设计展开扩建工作。

It will include a restored Hall of the Realms, the grandest remnant of the 17th-century palace that once stood on the Prado’s site.
这将包括修复一个王国的厅堂,曾坐落于普拉多展区的17世纪最宏伟壮丽的宫殿遗迹。

Velazquez’s “Surrender of Breda” and his five great equestrian portraits will return to the Hall, where they originally hung.
委拉兹开斯的《布列达的投降》和五幅骑士肖像画将回归展厅并挂到原处。

Some 200 paintings currently in storage will go to the new space.
目前储存着的两百幅油画也将送往新的展区。

Spain’s national self-confidence was shaken by the financial crisis of 2008-09.
西班牙的民族自信被2008-09年爆发的经济危机动摇。

Many new museums around the country were revealed to be the unaffordable trophies of local politicians.
在国内兴建博物馆成了当地政客负担不起的好胜之举。

The Prado’s lesson for post-crisis Spain is that professionalism, entrepreneurial drive and internationalisation bring rewards.
普拉多给后危机时代的西班牙上了一课:提升专业水平,锐意创新和接轨国际才会带来回报。

error: