【词汇】托福同义词串串烧(116)- The Use of the Camera Obscura

TPO-44-2 The Use of the Camera Obscura

The precursor of the modern camera, the camera obscura is a darkened enclosure into which light is admitted through a lens in a small hole. The image of the illuminated area outside the enclosure is thrown upside down as if by magic onto a surface in the darkened enclosure. This technique was known as long ago as the fifth century B.C. in China. Aristotle also experimented with it in the fourth century B.C., and Leonardo da Vinci described it in his notebooks in 1490. In 1558 Giovanni Battista Della Porta wrote in his twenty-volume work Magia naturalis (meaning “natural magic”) instructions for adding a convex lens to improve the quality of the image thrown against a canvas or panel in the darkened area where its outlines could be traced. Later, portable camera obscuras were developed, with interior mirrors and drawing tables on which the artist could trace the image. For the artist, this technique allows forms and linear perspective to be drawn precisely as they would be seen from a single viewpoint. Mirrors were also used to reverse the projected images to their original positions.

Did some of the great masters of painting, then, trace their images using a camera obscura? Some art historians are now looking for clues of artists’ use of such devices. One of the artists whose paintings are being analyzed from this point of view is the great Dutch master, Jan Vermeer, who lived from 1632 to 1675 during the flowering of art and science in the Netherlands, including the science of optics. Vermeer produced only about 30 known paintings, including his famous The Art of Painting. The room shown in it closely resembles the room in other Vermeer paintings, with lighting coming from a window on the left, the same roof beams, and similar floor tiles, suggesting that the room was fitted with a camera obscura on the side in the foreground. The map hung on the opposite wall was a real map in Vermeers possession, reproduced in such faithful detail that some kind of tracery is suspected. When one of Vermeer’s paintings was X-rayed, it did not have any preliminary sketches on the canvas beneath the paint, but rather the complete image drawn in black and white without any trial sketches. Vermeer did not have any students, did not keep any records, and did not encourage anyone to visit his studio, facts that can be interpreted as protecting his secret use of a camera obscura.

In recent times the British artist David Hockney has published his investigations into the secret use of the camera obscura, claiming that for up to 400 years, many of Western art’s great masters probably used the device to produce almost photographically realistic details in their paintings. He includes in this group Caravaggio, Hans Holbein, Leonardo da Vinci, Diego Velazquez, Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, Agnolo Bronzino, and Jan van Eyck. From an artist’s point of view, Hockney observed that a camera obscura compresses the complicated forms of a three-dimensional scene into two-dimensional shapes that can easily be traced and also increases the contrast between light and dark, leading to the chiaroscuro effect seen in many of these paintings. In Jan van Eyck’s The Marriage of Giovanni Arnolfini and Giovanna Cenami, the complicated foreshortening in the chandelier and the intricate detail in the bride’s garments are among the clues that Hockney thinks point to the use of the camera obscura.

So what are we to conclude? If these artists did use a camera obscura, does that diminish their stature? Hockney argues that the camera obscura does not replace artistic skill in drawing and painting. In experimenting with it, he found that it is actually quite difficult to use for drawing, and he speculates that the artists probably combined their observations from life with tracing of shapes.


题目
【题目】1. The word “portable” in the passage is closest in meaning to

○valuable

○practical

○moveable

○popular

【题目】2. The word “projected” in the passage is closest in meaning to

○whole

○corrected

○enlarged

○shown

【题目】3. The word “faithful” in the passage is closest in meaning to

○unusual

○extensive

○exact

○historical

【题目】4. The word “intricate” in the passage is closest in meaning to

○surprising

○complex

○beautiful

○clear

【题目】5. The word “diminish” in the passage is closest in meaning to

○reduce

○affect

○reflect

○determine


单词解释和答案

1、portable

[port·a·ble || ‘pɔrtəbl /’pɔː-]

adj.  可携带的, 可移动的, 可搬运的

同义词:  conveyable / movable / transferable

反义词:  stationary

【原句】: Later, portable camera obscuras were developed, with interior mirrors and drawing tables on which the artist could trace the image.

【题目】1. The word “portable” in the passage is closest in meaning to

○valuable

○practical

○moveable★

○popular


2、project

[pro·ject || prə’dʒekt ,’prɑdʒekt /prə’dʒekt ,’prɒ-]

n.  计划, 事业, 方案

v.  计划, 投掷, 设计; 突出, 伸出; 投射

【同义词】:  bulge / design / enterprise / intention / plan / plot / proposal / protrude / scheme / screen / show / stick out / undertaking / venture

【原句】: Mirrors were also used to reverse the projected images to their original positions.

【题目】2. The word “projected” in the passage is closest in meaning to

○whole

○corrected

○enlarged

○shown★


3、faithful

[faith·ful || ‘feɪθfʊl]

n.  信徒

adj.  忠实的, 可靠的, 详确的

【反义词】:  faithless

【原句】: The map hung on the opposite wall was a real map in Vermeers possession, reproduced in such faithful detail that some kind of tracery is suspected.

【题目】3. The word “faithful” in the passage is closest in meaning to

○unusual

○extensive

○exact★

○historical


4、intricate

[‘in·tri·cate || ‘ɪntrɪkət]

adj.  复杂的, 缠结的, 错综的

【同义词】:  complex / complicated / confused / involved / perplexing

【反义词】:  plain  simple

【原句】: In Jan van Eyck’s The Marriage of Giovanni Arnolfini and Giovanna Cenami, the complicated foreshortening in the chandelier and the intricate detail in the bride’s garments are among the clues that Hockney thinks point to the use of the camera obscura.

【题目】4. The word “intricate” in the passage is closest in meaning to

○surprising

○complex★

○beautiful

○clear


5、diminish

[di·min·ish || dɪ’mɪnɪʃ]

v.  减少, 缩减, 减小; 把减半音; 削弱…的权势, 降低…的声誉; 使成尖顶; 变小, 缩小; 成尖顶; 失势, 被贬低

【同义词】:  curtail / cut / decrease / lessen / reduce

【反义词】:  increase / raise

【原句】: So what are we to conclude? If these artists did use a camera obscura, does that diminish their stature?

【题目】5. The word “diminish” in the passage is closest in meaning to

○reduce★

○affect

○reflect

○determine


参考译文

影像暗箱的使用

现代相机的前身影像暗箱,是一个黑暗的外売,光线经过镜头中的一个小洞穿过。外部的照明区域的图像被上下颠倒,仿佛是用魔术投映到黑暗外売中表面上。这一技术早在公元前第五世纪的中国就为人所知。亚里士多德在公元前第四世纪也曾用这个技术做实验,在1490达文西列奥纳多在他的笔记本中也描述了这个技术。在1558年,乔凡尼巴蒂斯塔德拉•波尔塔在他的二十卷本Magianaturalis(意思是“自然魔法”)中给出了指导,通过增加添加一个凸透镜来改善投到黑暗中画布或面板区域的图像质量,在那里可以描绘出它的轮廓。后来,便携相机暗盒得到了发展,有一个内镜和画板,艺术家可以在画板上描绘图像轮廓。对于艺术家,这种技术使得外形和线条透视图可以得到精确地绘制,因为它们是从单一的视角被观察的。镜子也被用来反向投影图像,使其回到原始的位置。

然后,那么有没有一些绘画大师,使用影像暗箱描绘他们的画像呢?一些艺术史学家现在正在寻找使用这些设备的艺术家的线索。从这一角度被分析的艺术家之一,就是伟大的荷兰大师杨•维梅尔,他生活在1632到1675年的荷兰,那时荷兰的艺术和科学非常繁荣,包括光学。维梅尔制作的绘画作品只有30幅左右,其中包括他著名的作品“绘画艺术”。在这幅画中显示的房间其他维梅尔画作中出现的房间非常相似,灯光从左边的窗口招进来,同一个屋檐梁和类似的地砖,这些都暗示着房间前景边上配有影像暗箱。在对面墙上挂着的地图是维梅尔实际财物中的真实地图,重现的细节太过逼真,有一些装饰图案是遭到质疑的。当维梅尔的一副作品用X光来照射,在颜料下面的画布上并没有草图,而是用黑与白完成的作品,没有任何尝试性的草图。维梅尔没有学生,没有留下任何记录,并不鼓励任何人去他的画室,这些事实可以解释为保护他秘密使用暗箱的事实。

近来,英国艺术家戴维霍克尼发表了他关于暗箱的秘密使用调查,声称在长达400年的时间里,许多西方艺术大师可能使用装置在他们的作品中,刻画出如摄影艺术般逼真的细节。他将卡拉瓦乔、小汉斯、列奥纳多达文西、迭戈贝拉斯克斯、安格尔、保罗布龙齐诺以及扬•凡•艾克纳入了这一类人群中。从艺术家的角度来看,霍克尼观察到一个暗箱将一个复杂的三维场景的复杂形式压缩成二维形状,可以很容易地追踪并增加光与暗之间的反差,使得许多这些画产生现在看到的明暗效果。在扬•凡•艾克的“GiovanniArnolfini和GiovannaCenami的婚礼”中,吊灯复杂的透视和新娘服装的复杂细节都是霍克尼认为点使用了暗箱的线索。

那么我们要得出什么结论昵?如果这些艺术家使用了暗箱,这会破坏他们的名声?霍克尼认为,暗箱不会取代绘画中艺术技巧。实验中,他发现这其实很难用于绘图,他推测,艺术家们可能将他们的生活中观察和形状追踪结合。

 http://jetedu.com/2017/06/21/toefl-vocabulary-115/ ‎

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