【语言】你以为你讲的是英文?其实你在讲法语你造吗?

Six ways you speak French every day without realising it

How much of the English language comes from French roots? Michael Rosen, Dr Laura Wright and Dr Richard Ashdowne have been on the case, looking at Anglo-Norman onwards, and have found out some surprising facts…

英语里面到底有多次词是来源于法语的呢?米高.罗森,罗拉.怀特博士和理查德.阿什唐恩博士目前正在着手研究此事,现已经发现了很多意想不到的事情…

A lot of English words are actually French

A large amount of what we think of as English vocabulary is really French in origin. We’re not talking about words like brunette, critique or déjà vu, but other words you may not have realised were French – like wardrobe or pocket.

These words are really Anglo-Norman. So what is this thing called Anglo-Norman? And when did it happen?

很多英语词就是法语

很多我们原本以为是英语的词竟是来源于法语。那些像brunette(深褐色头发的白人女子), critique (批判)或者déjà vu(似曾相识)这么明显的就不用说了,像wardrobe(衣柜)和pocket(口袋)这样的单词其实也是法语呢!这些词属于安格鲁-诺曼语。那么什么是安格鲁-诺曼语,以及它是从什么时候开始的呢?实际上,安格鲁-诺曼语就是就是在当时1066年征服英格兰的诺曼人所讲的语言, 当时并没有所谓的统一的法语,只是有很多不同的方言,诺曼语也是其中的一种。


A lot of English words for food are French. (Not garlic or red wine.)

Lettuce, grape, almond, radish, onion and mushroom.

These are all Anglo-Norman French words. Our vocabulary for food is full of them.

British legal terminology is full of French words too, like to aid and abet.

A lot of English higher-end vocab comes from Anglo-Norman French.

很多关于食物的名词也来自于法语

Lettuce(生菜), grape(葡萄), almond(杏仁), radish(萝卜), onion(洋葱) 和 mushroom(蘑菇),以上名字皆属安格鲁-诺曼法语。

在英国的法律术语中法语也随处可见,比如 aid和abet. 不仅如此,英语很多高级词汇都借用了法语。


Outrage is a French word

We have the French language to thank for all the words that end in -age. The Anglo-Norman French loved adding -age to English words, for example: voyage,courage and outrage.

In recent years this has taken off in a big way; we now have words like signage that are being used frequently. The TV show Buffy the Vampire Slayer was infamous for creating a whole raft of these words by adding -age, like scrollage (scrolling on your computer screen), scanage (scanning something) and vibeage (feeling the vibes, yet? No, us neither).

连Outrage都是法语!

所有以age结尾的英语词汇都是来自于法语。安格鲁-诺曼法语喜欢在英语词汇结尾加上age,比如voyage(航行), courage (勇气)和 outrage(愤怒).

近年来这种组词方式非常流行。现在我们可以看到像signage(标记)这样的词经常出现。电视剧Buffy the Vampire Slayer正是由于使用大量在英语后面加age这种词而备受诟病,比如说scrollage (在电脑上滚动滚轴), scanage (扫描) and vibeage (气氛) 。

注:scrollage, scanage, vibeage这几个词都不是真实存在的词,是这部电视剧生编硬造的。


Do you live in a place which has a French name?

Did you know that the south London suburb Tooting Bec is a French name? TheBec part of the name is an Anglo-Norman French word from an abbey in Normandy that owned some land in Tooting.

Stoke Mandeville in Aylesbury was originally called Stoke but was bought up by the Anglo-Norman family of the Mandevilles.

有些地方就是用法语命名的?

位于伦敦南部郊区的Tooting Bec就是一个法语词。后面那个Bec就是一个安格鲁-诺曼法语词,它其实是一个法国的一个修道院的名字,而这个修道院在Tooting在这个地方又拥有一些地,Tooting Bec这个名字就是这么得来的。

在Aylesbury(位于英国南部的小城)有个地方叫Stoke Mandeville。原本这个地方只叫Stoke, 后来被一个来自于叫做Mandevilles的安格鲁-诺曼家庭买下来了。


There’s not a huge difference between French and English words

Thanks to the influx of so many Anglo-Norman French words in the 11th century, there isn’t a huge difference between those Anglo-Norman words that seem so English now and their modern day Central French equivalents.

For instance: pocket (Anglo-Norman) and pochet (Central French); warranty(Anglo-Norman) and guarantee (Central French); and plank (Anglo-Norman) andplanche (Central French).

英语和法语没有很大的不同

多亏了11世纪时期有如此多的安格鲁-诺曼法语词的流入,才使得现在的某些英语单词和法国中部使用的法语没有太大差别。比如: pocket (口袋) 和 pochet ; warranty (保证,担保)和 guarantee ; 还有我们健身天天做的 plank(平板支撑,木板) 和 planche 也非常相似。


Your name might be French

What did a traditional English name in the 11th century look like?

Aelfgifu, Beorhtnoth, Aethelflaed, Leofthryth…

Just think, you could be called Beorhtnoth now if it weren’t for the adoption of Anglo-Norman French names. How fun.

So the English-sounding names that are actually originally French? John, Robert, Alice, William, Stephen, Susan, Christine, Thomas… The list keeps on going.

你的名字也可能是法语哦!
你知道11世纪的时候传统英国人的名字是什么样的吗?比如Aelfgifu, Beorhtnoth, Aethelflaed, Leofthryth…你想想,要是英国人没有采用安格鲁-诺曼语里的法语名字,你的名字可能就叫Beorhtnoth了。搞笑不。下面是BBC近期播出的电视剧叫The Last Kingdom, 大家可以从字幕里体会下当时的一些英文名字的魔力!

所以现在听上去像英文的英文名字其实是源自法语的?没错,小编给大家列出几个:John, Robert, Alice, William, Stephen, Susan, Christine, Jeffrey, Peter, Thomas,Michael… 这些都是,多得数不清。

所以下次如果有人因为听不懂你说的英语而跟你说:”are you speaking French(你是在说法语吗?)?”时,那你可以挺直了腰板,昂起头,大声说: “Oui!”

注:Oui 是法语,意思为“是的” 发音类似英语的”we”

 

本文章由杰特教育翻译并整理

BBC Radio4

http://jetedu.com/
 

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