TPO-21-3 Autobiographical Memory
Another suggestion is that before children can talk about past events in their lives, they need to have a reasonable understanding of the self as a psychological entity. The development of an understanding of the self becomes evident between the first and second years of life and shows rapid elaboration in subsequent years. The realization that the physical self has continuity in time, according to this hypothesis, lays the foundation for the emergence of autobiographical memory.
A third possibility is that children will not be able to tell their own “life story” until they understand something about the general form stories take, that is, the structure of narratives. Knowledge about narratives arises from social interactions, particularly the storytelling that children experience from parents and the attempts parents make to talk with children about past events in their lives. When parents talk with children about “what we did today” or “last week” or “last year,” they guide the children’s formation of a framework for talking about the past. They also provide children with reminders about the memory and relay the message that memories are valued as part of the cultural experience. It is interesting to note that some studies show Caucasian American children have earlier childhood memories than Korean children do. Furthermore, other studies show that Caucasian American mother-child pairs talk about past events three times more often than do Korean mother-child pairs. Thus, the types of social experiences children have do factor into the development of autobiographical memories.
A final suggestion is that children must begin to develop a “theory of mind”—an awareness of the concept of mental states (feelings, desires, beliefs, and thoughts), their own and those of others—before they can talk about their own past memories. Once children become capable of answering such questions as “What does it mean to remember?” and “What does it mean to know something?” improvements in memory seem to occur.
It may be that the developments just described are intertwined with and influence one another. Talking with parents about the past may enhance the development of the self-concept, for example, as well as help the child understand what it means to “remember.” No doubt the ability to talk about one’s past represents memory of a different level of complexity than simple recognition or recall.
【同义词】: abundant / enough / full / large / plenty / sufficient
【反义词】: insufficient / scanty
【原句】: The question of why infantile amnesia occurs has intrigued psychologists for decades, especially in light of ample evidence that infants and young children can display impressive memory capabilities.
【题目】1.The word “ample” in the passage is closest in meaning to
【同义词】: fair / just / justifiable / logical / practical / rational / realistic / sane / sensible / sound
【原句】: Another suggestion is that before children can talk about past events in their lives, they need to have a reasonable understanding of the self as a psychological entity.
【题目】2. The word “reasonable” in the passage is closest in meaning to
【同义词】: amplification / elaborateness / enlargement / expansion / intricacy / involution / refinement / working out
【原句】: The development of an understanding of the self becomes evident between the first and second years of life and shows rapid elaboration in subsequent years.
【题目】3.The word “elaboration” in the passage is closest in meaning to