【词汇】托福同义词串串烧(三十七)- Types of Social Groups

TPO-13-1 Types of Social Groups 

Life places us in a complex web of relationships with other people. Our humanness arises out of these relationships in the course of social interaction. Moreover, our humanness must be sustained through social interaction—and fairly constantly so. When an association continues long enough for two people to become linked together by a relatively stable set of expectations, it is called a relationship.

People are bound within relationships by two types of bonds: expressive ties and instrumental ties. Expressive ties are social links formed when we emotionally invest ourselves in and commit ourselves to other people. Through association with people who are meaningful to us, we achieve a sense of security, love, acceptance, companionship, and personal worth. Instrumental ties are social links formed when we cooperate with other people to achieve some goal. Occasionally, this may mean working with instead of against competitors. More often, we simply cooperate with others to reach some end without endowing the relationship with any larger significance.

Sociologists have built on the distinction between expressive and instrumental ties to distinguish between two types of groups: primary and secondary. A primary group involves two or more people who enjoy a direct, intimate, cohesive relationship with one another. Expressive ties predominate in primary groups; we view the people as ends in themselves and valuable in their own right. A secondary group entails two or more people who are involved in an impersonal relationship and have come together for a specific, practical purpose. Instrumental ties predominate in secondary groups; we perceive people as means to ends rather than as ends in their own right. Sometimes primary group relationships evolve out of secondary group relationships. This happens in many work settings. People on the job often develop close relationships with coworkers as they come to share gripes, jokes, gossip, and satisfactions.

A number of conditions enhance the likelihood that primary groups will arise. First, group size is important. We find it difficult to get to know people personally when they are milling about and dispersed in large groups. In small groups we have a better chance to initiate contact and establish rapport with them. Second, face-to-face contact allows us to size up others. Seeing and talking with one another in close physical proximity makes possible a subtle exchange of ideas and feelings. And third, the probability that we will develop primary group bonds increases as we have frequent and continuous contact. Our ties with people often deepen as we interact with them across time and gradually evolve interlocking habits and interests.

Primary groups are fundamental to us and to society. First, primary groups are critical to the socialization process. Within them, infants and children are introduced to the ways of their society. Such groups are the breeding grounds in which we acquire the norms and values that equip us for social life. Sociologists view primary groups as bridges between individuals and the larger society because they transmit, mediate, and interpret a society’s cultural patterns and provide the sense of oneness so critical for social solidarity.

Second, primary groups are fundamental because they provide the settings in which we meet most of our personal needs. Within them, we experience companionship, love, security, and an overall sense of well-being. Not surprisingly, sociologists find that the strength of a group’s primary ties has implications for the group’s functioning. For example, the stronger the primary group ties of a sports team playing together, the better their record is.

Third, primary groups are fundamental because they serve as powerful instruments for social control. Their members command and dispense many of the rewards that are so vital to us and that make our lives seem worthwhile. Should the use of rewards fail, members can frequently win by rejecting or threatening to ostracize those who deviate from the primary group’s norms. For instance, some social groups employ shunning (a person can remain in the community, but others are forbidden to interact with the person) as a device to bring into line individuals whose behavior goes beyond that allowed by the particular group. Even more important, primary groups define social reality for us by structuring our experiences. By providing us with definitions of situations, they elicit from our behavior that conforms to group-devised meanings. Primary groups, then, serve both as carriers of social norms and as enforcers of them.


题目

【题目】1.The word “complex” in the passage is closest in meaning to

○ delicate

○ elaborate

○ private

○ common

【题目】2. The word “endowing” in the passage is closest in meaning to

○ leaving

○ exposing

○ providing

○ understanding

【题目】3. The phrase “size up” in the passage is closest in meaning to

○ enlarge

○ evaluate

○ impress

○ accept

【题目】4. The word “deviate” in the passage is closest in meaning to

○ detract

○ advance

○ select

○ depart


单词解释和答案

1、complex

[com·plex || ‘kɒmpleks]

n.  复合物, 综合体; 综合设施; 集团; 情结

adj.  复杂的, 合成的

【同义词】:  bias  complicated  confused  inclination  involved  leaning  mixed  prejudice

【反义词】:  brief  plain  simple

【原句】: Life places us in a complex web of relationships with other people. Our humanness arises out of these relationships in the course of social interaction.

【题目】1.The word “complex” in the passage is closest in meaning to

○ delicate

○ elaborate★

○ private

○ common


2、endowing

[en·dow || ɪn’daʊ]

v.  捐赠, 赋予, 捐助

【同义词】: bequeath  contribute  furnish  give  invest  provide  supply

【原句】:  More often, we simply cooperate with others to reach some end without endowing the relationship with any larger significance.

【题目】2. The word “endowing” in the passage is closest in meaning to

○ leaving

○ exposing

○ providing★

○ understanding


3、size up

估计…的大小; 符合要求; 品评

【同义词】:  scrutinise  scrutinize  take stock

【原句】: Second, face-to-face contact allows us to size up others. Seeing and talking with one another in close physical proximity makes possible a subtle exchange of ideas and feelings.

【题目】3. The phrase “size up” in the passage is closest in meaning to

○ enlarge

○ evaluate★

○ impress

○ accept


4、deviate

[de·vi·ate || ‘diːvɪeɪt]

n.  脱离常规的人

v.  脱离, 出轨; 使脱轨

【同义词】: aberrant  degenerate  depart  deviant  diverge  divert  pervert  vary

【原句】: Should the use of rewards fail, members can frequently win by rejecting or threatening to ostracize those who deviate from the primary group’s norms.

【题目】4. The word “deviate” in the passage is closest in meaning to

○ detract

○ advance

○ select

○ depart★


参考译文

社会群组的类型

 我们和其他人一起生活在一个复杂的关系网中。我们的人性就产生于这种社会性的互动关系中,与此同时,我们的人性也必须通过经常性的社会互动才能得以保存。当两个人在比较稳定的期望值下的交流时间足够长并且形成一种联系时,这种联系就可以称为关系。

人与人之间的关系可以分为两种:情感纽带和工具纽带。情感纽带在当我们感性的与他人交流时形成的一种社会联系。通过和对我们来说十分重要的人交流从而得到的安全感,爱情,认可,友谊和个人价值等一系列情感。工具纽带是当我们为了达到一些目标而与他人进行合作时产生的社会联系方式。有些时候,这也许意味着变相与竞争者一起共事。更多的时候我们没有发展出任何更有意义的关系而只是简单的与其他人合作并走向终点。

社会学家基于感情纽带与工具纽带的特征对两者进行了区分定义并划分出两种类型的群组:主要群组和次要群组。一个主要社群包含两个或更多人,他们都喜欢直接,亲密的,有粘性的与他人的关系。感情纽带在主要社群中起主导作用。我们审视人的时候是在他们的生命走到尽头的时候,还有他们的个人价值。次要群组也需要两个以上的不过是因为非个人关系而聚到一起都是为了一个具体的,特定的目标。而工具纽带就在其中起了重要的作用。我们关注人们在最后的价值要比他们自己的权利要多。有时主要群组的关系也会在次要群组中演化出来。这种现象一般发生在一些工作安排当中。人们在共同合作中会相互发牢骚,开玩笑,传八卦以及满足感,由此发展出了亲近的关系。

在一些情况下主要群组的扩大会导致生活习惯的增加。首先,群组的规模非常重要。当一个人身处并消失在一个巨大的群体里时,我们很难了解到他。但是在小型的群组里我们就能获得更多的机会开展联系并建立关系。第二点,面对面的接触能让我们更好的审视他们。与另一个人近距离的观察和交谈可以有更多的机会交流细微的感情与观念。第三点,我们发展主要群组的可能性和我们经常性的持续的交流息息相关。我们与其他人的纽带经常随着我们与其他人的互动而加深并演化为深层的相关联的习惯和兴趣。

主要群组是人与人之间乃至整个社会的基础。第一,主要群组是社会化进程的推动力量。在主要群组里,婴儿与孩童可以了解他们所处社会的种种处世办法。像这样的群组一般会产生于我们与我们的社会生活所需要的标准和价值观体系内。社会学家通过对主要群组的观察将其比喻为独立的个体与整个社会之间的桥梁,因为他能转换,能调节,能解释一个社会文化符号并且能够表达个体的感情并最终将二者合而为一。

第二点,主要群组之所以是基础是因为它能提供我们解决各人需求的种种方法。在主要群组中,我们经历友谊,经历爱情,获得依靠以及所有我们所希望得到的情感。毫无疑问社会学家发现一个群组的主要纽带的强弱往往暗示着这个群组的功能。比如,一群在一起比赛的队伍的主要群体纽带越强,他们的成绩就越好。

第三,主要群体之所以是基础还因为他们充当了强有力的社会调控工具。群体中的成员掌控并分配能够维持我们生存的极其重要的资源。如果奖励方式不当,群体内成员就会通过拒绝或威胁来摒弃那些背离群体规范的人,例如,一些社会群体采取规避措施(人可以留在群体中,但禁止其他成员与其交流),从而将特定群体中逾矩的个体慢慢同化与他人一致。更重要的是,主要群体通过构筑我们的经验来定义社会现实。他们根据我们的行为来定义我们的处境,以遵循群体分配的意义。因此,主要群体既是社会规范的载体同时也是社会规范的实施者。

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