【语法】语法点点点-定语从句和同位语从句

第十课

语法点点点是专门针对考托福雅思SAT等出国考试设计的一门干货语法课,目的有三:第一,考点提示,涵盖各个考试的重要考点;第二,点拨各位同学避免犯低级错误;第三,所选语法点都是精点,不是语法大全,个别语法点并没有提及,但能给同学们抛砖引玉。这三点是为语法“点点点”。



接下来就一起来听听Emily老师的精彩课程吧!


定语和同位语从句

两个长得很像的从句
上节课艾米丽把宾语从句跟表语从句放在一起讲了,大家还记得为什么吗?因为它们两个长得像呗。同理,今天要讲的定从和同从呢同样是很像,但是又有区别。废话少说,开讲!
性格却不同,一个高调一个低调
正如account for是短语里面的战斗机,as是状语从句里面的劳模一样,定语从句可以说是从句里面的老大,因为使用频率太高,这家伙想低调都不行,相信这个从句也是大家最熟悉的从句了。同位语相对来说可能比较低调,因为它最小众,而且还经常被误认为是定从,所以就这样被淹没了。下面我们来揭开这两种从句的庐山真面目。


分辨定从跟同从的关键在于看引导词是否充当成分,或者看省略引导词后的从句是否是一个完整独立的句子。所以大家可以看到同位语挺简单的,但是定从就复杂一点,我得多说几句。
定从是修饰作用
定从是修饰作用,引导词是代替先行词的。这句话是很关键的,因为经常有同学写完了引导词还要把先行词写一遍的。比如说:
This is the house where Shakespeare used to live in the house.【where已经代替了in the house了好嘛,不用再写一遍啦】


介词+引导词的理解问题
这是定从里面的难点,而且很重要!这需要熟悉介词与先行词和短语的搭配(所以之前讲短语的时候让你们好好背短语了吧),然后又把人家分隔两地,本来学定从就已经受够了,现在还要加个介词,同学们要挺住啊!不要倒下啊!
The two elements of which water is made are oxygen and hydrogen.还原回来:The two elements which water is made of are oxygen and hydrogen. 所以which 前面那个of就是从be made of那里借调到前面去的,这是人家英语的习惯。
大家试试分析下面两个句子:The man to whom you were talking is very handsome.Frequent fire is a factor to which rain forest species seem unable to adapt.大家看到最后那个adapt了吗?记得adapt有啥短语吗?没错, 就是adapt to, 所以which前面那个to是把adapt 后面那个to提前了。
限定词+of+关系词
定从还有一种是酱紫的:限定词+of+关系词The old man has three sons, all of whom are doctors.There are many international students in this university, most of whom are Chinses.Amy has five dogs, each of which was very expensive.


经典定语从句
做校对的Lily说同位语从句还没看过瘾,那就再给你们送几句经典的。
A major development was the discovery that if copper was mixed with tin, a much harder metal, bronze, would result.
There are numerous unsubstantiated reports that natural vitamins are superior to synthetic ones, that fertilized eggs are nutritionally superior to unfertilized eggs, that untreated grains are better than fumigated grains and the like.
As a result, claims that eating a diet consisting entirely of organically grown foods prevents or cures disease or provides other benefits to health have become widely publicized and form the basis for folklore.


总结
1.定语从句跟在名词后面,起修饰作用,翻译为“……的”;而同位语从句同样放在(抽象)名词后面,起解释说明作用。2. 介词+关系词这类定语从句很重要,需要结合词组和短语理解,同学们需要有一定的基础和语感。


Quiz
1.请分辨以下哪句是定语从句,哪句是同位语从句When heard the news that our basketball team won, everyone was very excited.The idea that robots and machines will take human’s place at work sounds impossible.These facts that I learned from books are mostly gathered by Guinness.The book that I borrowed from the library yesterday was lost and I don’t know what to do.The idea that was shared by Alan in the office was excellent!The idea that  employees can enjoy one-month holiday every year was supported by everyone.

2. 请用合适的关系词填空

The woman from _____ I borrowed 100 dollars is now asking me to return the money.

This restaurant is the place _____ my husband proposed.

The lamp _____ I bought from Ikea only one month ago has already failed to work.

The table has four specially made legs, each __   __ is engraved with different patterns.


上期答案
请大家辨认下列从句是什么从句,并翻译句子。1. The poor little boy doesn’t know when and where he was born.宾语从句。这个可怜的小男孩不知道他是什么时候在哪里出生的。2. The next day we found that he didn’t go home but stayed in the office.宾语从句。第二天我们发现他没有回家而是在办公室过夜了。3.  The first reason is that most environmental issues are caused by human beings.表语从句。首先大多数的环境问题都是人为的。

4.  Nobody knows how many people were hurt during the accident.

宾语从句。没有人知道在那场事故中有多少伤亡。

请用适当的引导词填空。

1.  You must have forgotten what I sa d the other day.

2. She said that she would be back in ten minutes.

3. Even the broadcaster himself is not sure whether it will snow or not tomorrow.

4. Can you share with me what you did this summer?

5. I really want to know why Helen didn’t invite me to her birthday party.

下期预告:主语从句
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