【语法】语法点点点-宾语从句和表语从句

第九课

语法点点点是专门针对考托福雅思SAT等出国考试设计的一门干货语法课,目的有三:第一,考点提示,涵盖各个考试的重要考点;第二,点拨各位同学避免犯低级错误;第三,所选语法点都是精点,不是语法大全,个别语法点并没有提及,但能给同学们抛砖引玉。这三点是为语法“点点点”。



接下来就一起来听听Emily老师的精彩课程吧!


宾语从句和表语从句

一、从句的分类
首先要告诉大家一个分辨从句的小诀窍。很多同学能说得上来有哪几种从句,但是一问主语从句是怎么样的?几乎就没有人能答上来。对于宾语从句,表语从句,定语从句和同位语从句来说,只要大家能辨认出引导词前面的词是什么词,基本就可以分辨是什么从句了。主语从句和状语从句不能完全用这个方法,我们后面再慢慢讲。今天我们先来看看宾语从句和表语从句。


二、宾语从句和表语从句的特征
宾语从句和表语从句的性质很像,都是跟在动词后面的,只是宾语从句是跟在实义动词后面的,表语从句是跟在be动词后面的而已,也就是简单句里的主谓宾和主系表两种结构的升级版啦。
主谓宾是酱紫的: I like her. (her 就是like的宾语)宾语从句是酱紫的:She believes that I like her. (that引导的就是believe的宾语从句)主系表是酱紫的:  She is a student. (a student是is的表语)表语从句是酱紫的: The problem is that she is a student. (that引导的就是is的表语从句)除了that之外,各大引导词where, when, who, what, which, why, whether, how(俗称7w1h) 都可以放在这两个从句里。

请注意:宾语从句中的that常常是被省略的,因为它是没有意思的,但是表语从句的that不能省(口语可以,书面语不可以)。请注意从句后面的句子全部都要用陈述句!陈述句!!陈述句!!!请对比:疑问句:Where are  you going?宾语从句: Can you tell me where you are going?表语从句: Is this where the famous writer lives?


三、如何理解宾从和表从
宾从和表从的特点是主从不分离,也就是从句不能被省略,因为最重要的信息都在从句里面。表语从句一般翻译为……是……;宾语从句按照单词意思按顺序往下翻译就可以了。如果是that引导的宾从或者表从,that是没有具体意思的,也不充当任何成分,是打酱油的,不需翻译。The college board suggests that students have some snacks during break time.college board建议考生在小息期间吃点零食。(主从连接紧密,直接按顺序翻译即可)学会断句是攻破长难句的重要方法。很多时候句子长但其实断一断找到主句就好了。咱们不着急翻译句子哈,先学会找结构。
托福阅读原句:The most recent comprehensive evaluation of early intervention programs suggests that preschool programs can provide significant benefits, and that government funds may ultimately lead to a reduction in future costs.
这个句子虽然挺长,但是一个非常简单的结构,就是两个宾语从句的并列(两个that),主语是同一个(The most recent comprehensive evaluation of early intervention programs),先行词也是同一个(suggest),所以简单来看就 evaluation suggests A and B。翻译过来就是:最新的针对早期干预项目的评估有两个发现,一是学前教育项目有明显的好处,二是政府在这前期的投入也能为未来省钱。(by the way, 这个并列宾语从句在雅思托福阅读中时有出现,有时还不止两个并列,雅思中出现过13个(剑8,P70第二段)并列宾从的,所以大家要眼尖,时刻记住主语是谁,不然一不注意就被带飞了)总之看到长句首先要做的不是一字一句地看,而是快速看完找大结构。更多分析艾老师在后面会有专门的攻破长难句秘籍哦!大家试试分析以下两句话:
托福阅读原句:The problem is that competition cannot be observed directly but must be inferred from the spread or increase of one species and the concurrent reduction or disappearance of another species.
这句整体是一个表语从句,从句里面是not…but…的小句型。这种套娃似的套句满大街都是,但是同学们只要认出了从句和句型就没什么好怕的。
托福阅读原句:A third possibility is that children will not be able to tell their own “life story”until they understand something about the general form stories take, that is , the structure of narratives.
这也是一个大表语从句套not…until小句型。对于这两个表语从句,大家只要专心理解that后面那句话就可以了。稍微小提醒一下大家就是suggest除了有“建议”这个意思之外,还有“暗示”、“显示”的意思。


四、重点介绍对象:whether还是if?
whether跟if都有“是否”的意思,但是在从句中的用法稍有区别。whether可以引导表语从句和宾语从句,但是If只能引导宾语从句。
Whether引导的从句:Think about it and tell me whether you will do it or not tomorrow. (宾语从句,or not只能跟whether搭配)The question is whether the children can keep their promises.(表语从句)
if能引导宾语从句,但不能引导表语从句:I wonder if he will accept my advice and change his mind.(宾语从句)The key point is if she can pass the final exam. (if不能引导表语从句,因此这个句子是错误的。)


总结
1. 判断是什么从句的依据是看引导词前是什么词,宾语从句前是实义动词,表语从句前是be动词。2. 带有宾从跟表从的句子重点都在从句里面,重点理解从句。3. 看到长句不要着急一字一句翻译,而是先找出大小结构。4.whether表从跟宾从都可以引导,if只能引导宾从。


Quiz
请大家辨认下列从句是什么从句,并翻译句子。1. The poor little boy doesn’ t know when and where he was born.2. The next day we found that he didn’ t go home but stayed in the office.3.  The first reason is that most environmental issues are caused by human beings.4.  Nobody knows how many people were hurt during the accident.请用适当的引导词填空。

1.  You must have forgotten ____________ I said the other day.

2. She said __________she would be back in ten minutes.

3. Even the broadcaster himself is not sure____________ it will snow or not tomorrow.

4. Can you share with me ________ you did this summer?

5. I really want to know__________ Helen didn’ t invite me to her birthday party.


上期答案
1. 请根据句子意思,用适当的词填空。Travelling by train is not __as__comfortable __as____by plane.Peter was late for one hour ___so__ we were all very angry.It is very cold ___but___ Mandy still goes swimming every two days.You are wrong,   __and______ you will be sorry for what you did.You’d better apologize to your best friend now, ___or____ you will regret it.

2. 翻译句子。

1)你现在是大人了,要对自己的所作所为负责。

You are a grownup now so you have to be responsible for what you do.

2)政府想要在市中心建一个大公园,这受到市民的广泛支持。

The government plans to build a park in city centre, and this receives great support from citizens.

3)只要你把艾米丽的语法课都学完,你必定有丰厚的收获。

As long as you finish Emily’ s grammar lessons, you will be rewarded.

下期预告:定语从句和同位语从句
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